Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of some nerve cells.
arachnoid membrane
Middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord.
A type of glial (neuroglial) cell; connective, supporting cell of the nervous system. Astrocytes transport water and salts from capillaries.
autonomic nervous system
Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
blood-brain barrier
blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
Lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. The pons and medulla oblongata are part of the brainstem
cauda equina
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
cell body
Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
cerebral cortex
outer region of the cerebrum; containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous stimuli
dura mater
Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
ependymal cell
A cell that lines the fluid-filled sacs of the brain and spinal cord
a collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nbervous system
glial cells (neuroglia)
cells in the nervous system that do not carry impulses but are supportive and connective in function.
gyrus (plural: gyri)
sheets of nerve cells that produce elevation in the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetitie, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
medulla oblongata
the part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fivers cross over here.
three protective layers that surround the brain and spinal cord
micorglial cell
one type of glial cell. It is a phagocyte
motor nerves
carry messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent (ef=away) nerves
myelin sheath
fatty tissue that surrounds, protects, and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. These sheaths are white in color (white matter)
macroscopic structure consisting of axons and dendrites in bundles like strands of rope.
a nerve cell; carries impulses throughout the body. There are about 10 billion neurons
chemical messenger, released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell.
oligodendroglial cell
glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons.
parasympathetic nerves
involuntary, autonomic nerves that help regulate body functions like heart rate and respiration
essential, distinguishing cells of an organ. Neurons are the parenchymal tissur of the brain.
Pia mater
thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
plexus (plural: plexuses)
large, interlacing network of nerves.
part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the brain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain
Organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body. The dkin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors.
Sensory nerves
Carry messages to the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent (af=toward) nerves.
stimulus (plural: stimuli)
change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response
connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain
sulcus (plural: sulci)
Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.
sympathetic nerves
Autonomic nerves that influence body functions involuntarily in times of stress.
the space (juncture) through which a nervous impulse is transmitted fron one neuron to another or from a neuron to another cell, such as a muscle or gland cell
Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
ventricle of the brain
reservoirs (canals) in the interior of the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.