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45 Cards in this Set

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austrian monk, job was to oversee the peapatch
george mendel
passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
heredity
branch of biology that studies heredity
genetics
characteristics that are inherited
traits
2 components must come together to
reproduce
male and female organs
hermaphrodite
uniting of female and male gametes
fertilization
sex cells
gametes
fertilization of flowers
pollination
male parts of one plant into female parts of another plant
making a cross
offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait
hybrid
crossing but no new information
purebred
changes after crossing
truebred
different gene forms
alleles
two alleles for character traits, the dominant trait is observed and the recessive allele is the allele that dissapears
law of dominance
trait that stays
dominant
trait that dissapears
recessive
during fertilization gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles
law of segregation
way an organism looks and behaves
phenotype
gene combination an organism contains
genotype
by the genotype you can tell the
phenotype
for a trait if its two alleles are the same
homozygous
for a trait id its two alleles for the trait differ from eachother
heterozygous
location on DNA where that protein is made
gene
two chromosomes of each pair in a diploid , determines how thing looks
homologous chromosome
cell with two of each kind of chromosome
diploid
2n
diploid
cell with one of each kind of chromosome
haploid
chromosomes duplicate to form copies that will form two sister chromatids held by a centromere
interphase
chromatin tightly coil into chromosomes
prophase 1
chromosomes line up down the center of the cell
metaphase 1
homologous pairs separate and move to opposite sides
anaphase 1
spindle breaks down chromosomes uncoil, cytoplasm divides into two cells
telophase 1
spindle and etc form in both cells
prophase 2
chromosomes line up down the center of the cell ( sister chromatids are still together)
metaphase 2
centromeres split, sister chromatids move to opposite ends of the cell
anaphase 2
spindle breaks down and cytoplasm divides, 4 haploid cells form, gametes formed
telophase 2
recombining genetic information in all different ways
genetic recombination
DNA messes up because of
radiation, ultraviolet light, chemicals, X-rays
missing a chromosome
monosomy
extra chromosome
trisomy
21st pair of chromosomes
down syndrome
monosomy at the 23rd pair
turners syndrome
not lined up right
nondisjunction
8 million sperm x the 8 million eggs
70 trillion different babies