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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Calcium absorption is decreased by all of the following except
A.
oxalic acid.
B.
glucose.
C.
tannins.
D.
phytic acid.
b. glucose
The ability of the skin to synthesize vitamin D is decreased by
A.
use of sunscreen.
B.
excessive dietary calcium intake.
C.
excessive dietary phosphorus intake.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
a. use of sunscreen.
A good indicator of bone health is
A.
frame size.
B.
curvature of the spine.
C.
bone mineral density.
D.
blood calcium concentration.
c. bone mineral density
Bone remodeling refers to
A.
continual degradation and regeneration of bone.
B.
growth at the ends of long bones.
C.
use of metal pins to repair broken bones.
D.
loss of height that occurs with aging.
A.
continual degradation and regeneration of bone.
Excessive use of antibiotics can negatively impact bone health through its effects on
A.
vitamin D synthesis.
B.
calcium absorption.
C.
vitamin K synthesis.
D.
phosphorus excretion.
C. vitamin K synthesis
Food sources of calcium are superior to supplemental sources because
A.
food sources are less likely to be contaminated by harmful minerals.
B.
many people find it difficult to adhere to a supplement regimen.
C.
food sources contain additional nutrients and phytochemicals.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
The network of protein fibers within bone is called
A.
dentin.
B.
the bone matrix.
C.
enamel.
D.
the periosteum.
b. the bone matrix
Vitamin D and vitamin K share which of the following characteristics?
A.
Both can be synthesized to some extent by the body
B.
Both affect intestinal absorption of calcium
C.
Both are involved in blood clotting
D.
All of these choices are correct.
A. both can be synthesized to some extent by the body
Calcium absorption is increased by all of the following except
A.
the presence of lactose in the gastrointestinal tract.
B.
the presence of acid in the gastrointestinal tract.
C.
pregnancy.
D.
old age.
d. old age
In women, bone loss begins around age
A.
35.
B.
20.
C.
25.
D.
30.
d. 30
The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is
A.
cereal grains.
B.
milk and dairy products.
C.
meat.
D.
dark green vegetables.
b. milk and dairy products
Calcium absorption is decreased by all of the following except
A.
phytic acid.
B.
oxalic acid.
C.
tannins.
D.
glucose.
d. glucose
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
A.
riboflavin.
B.
niacin.
C.
vitamin A.
D.
vitamin D.
d. vitamin d
Reduced blood calcium levels would result from the actions of
A.
calcitriol.
B.
calcitonin.
C.
parathyroid hormone.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
b. calcitonin
For prevention of osteoporosis, strength training is
A.
not recommended because it increases fracture risk.
B.
recommended because it decreases estrogen levels.
C.
recommended because the stress on bones stimulates bone maintenance.
D.
not recommended because it increases testosterone levels.
c. recommended because the stress on bones stimulates bone maintenance
The major effect of taking high doses of vitamin D is
A.
limb paralysis.
B.
excessive acne.
C.
a flaky skin rash.
D.
calcium deposits in the kidneys and other organs.
D. calcium deposits int he kidneys and other organs
Higher intakes of all of the following are associated with increased bone mass except
A.
calcium.
B.
vitamin C.
C.
vitamin D.
D.
sodium.
d. sodium
The difference between osteopenia and osteoporosis is
A.
the bone loss of patients with osteopenia is not as severe as that of patients with osteoporosis.
B.
osteopenia can be cured whereas osteoporosis is irreversible.
C.
the bone loss of patients with osteopenia is worse than that of patients with osteoporosis.
D.
osteopenia is caused by heredity whereas osteoporosis is caused by lifestyle.
A. the bone loss of patients with oseopenia is not as severe as that of patients with osteoporosis
This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities.
A.
Selenium
B.
Copper
C.
Iron
D.
Fluoride
D. fluoride
Which of the following food combinations provides the best source of vitamin K?
A.
Ham and cheese on a whole wheat English muffin
B.
Sirloin steak, steamed green beans, and baked potato
C.
Low-fat yogurt with granola and fresh berries
D.
Spinach salad with strawberries, blueberries, and oil and vinegar dressing
D. spinach salad with strawberries, blueberries, and oil and vinegar dressing
The mixture of calcium and phosphorus that mineralizes bone is called
A.
hydroxyapatite.
B.
dentin.
C.
calcium carbonate.
D.
calcium citrate
A. hydroxyapatite
Of the following, the mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is
A.
phosphorus.
B.
iron.
C.
calcium.
D.
copper.
A. phosphorus
Phosphorus functions in all the following ways except
A.
it is important for blood glucose regulation.
B.
it is a cofactor for a variety of enzymes.
C.
it is a component of cell membranes.
D.
it is a component of DNA.
A. it is important for blood glucose regulation
The most accurate method of assessing bone health is
A.
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.
B.
computed tomography.
C.
single energy x-ray absorptiometry.
D.
quantitative ultrasound.
A. dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
Calcium absorption is decreased by all of the following except
A.
glucose.
B.
oxalic acid.
C.
phytic acid.
D.
tannins.
A. glucose
Exceeding the UL for phosphorus can lead to
A.
kidney damage.
B.
excessive bone growth.
C.
blood clots.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
A. kidney damage
Which of the following would be the best source of vitamin D for person following a vegan diet?
A.
Vitamin D-fortified soymilk
B.
Fish oil
C.
Spinach
D.
Whole grain products
A. vitamin D-fortified soymilk
The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is
A.
vitamin E.
B.
niacin.
C.
vitamin D.
D.
vitamin A.
C. vitamin D
The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is
A.
milk and dairy products.
B.
dark green vegetables.
C.
cereal grains.
D.
meat.
A. milk and dairy products
Excess body weight
A.
impairs calcium absorption.
B.
is associated with greater risk of fractures.
C.
accelerates bone loss.
D.
increases bone density.
D. Increases bone density
Cortical bone
A.
is the site of red blood cell synthesis.
B.
has a spongy structure.
C.
is the protective, outer layer of bone.
D.
has a dense structure.
D. has a dense structure
Reduced blood calcium levels would result from the actions of
A.
calcitriol.
B.
calcitonin.
C.
parathyroid hormone.
D.
All of these choices are correct.
B. calcitonin
What is magnesium's primary function?
a. It is important for nerve and heart function
b. It acts as the carrier for calcium absorption
c. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis
d. It maintains mucus production in the digestive tract
A. it is important for nerve and heart function
Calcium absorption is decreased by all of the following except
a. tannins.
b. glucose.
c. oxalic acid.
d. phytic acid.
B. glucose
Mrs. Davis is a 70-year-old white female who just had a DEXA measurement to assess her bone density. Her T-score of -2.1 indicates
a. high bone mineral density.
b. normal bone mineral density.
c. osteoporosis.
d. osteopenia.
d. osteopenia.
Which of the following populations is most susceptible to vitamin K deficiency?
a. Children with cystic fibrosis
b. Older adults
c. Preschool children who are
picky eaters
d. Vegans
A. children with cystic fibrosis
Of the following, the mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is
a. iron.
b. phosphorus.
c. copper.
d. calcium.
b. phosphorus
A good indicator of bone health is
a. frame size.
b. blood calcium concentration.
c. bone mineral density.
d. curvature of the spine.
c. bone mineral density
Excessive use of antibiotics can negatively impact bone health through its effects on
a. vitamin K synthesis.
b. calcium absorption.
c. phosphorus excretion.
d. vitamin D synthesis.
A. vitamin K synthesis
Fat malabsorption may contribute to poor bone health because of impaired absorption of
a. magnesium.
b. vitamin D.
c. calcium.
d. phosphorus.
b. vitamin d
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
a. vitamin A.
b. niacin.
c. riboflavin.
d. vitamin D.
d. vitamin d
Food sources of calcium are superior to supplemental sources because
A. food sources are less likely to be contaminated by harmful minerals.
B. many people find it difficult to adhere to a supplement regimen.
C. food sources contain additional nutrients and phytochemicals.
D. All of these choices are correct.
D. all of these choices are correct
Which of the following is not a function of calcium?
A. Appetite regulation
B. Normal nerve transmission
C. Blood clotting
D. Muscle contraction
A. appetite regulation
Trabecular bone
A. has a porous structure.
B. is the site of blood cell synthesis.
C. is more rapidly remodeled than cortical bone.
D. All of these choices are correct.
D. all of these choices are correct
Excessive use of antibiotics can negatively impact bone health through its effects on
A. calcium absorption.
B. vitamin K synthesis.
C. vitamin D synthesis.
D. phosphorus excretion.
B. Vitamin K synthesis
All the following are characteristics of vitamin D except
A. causes the kidney to excrete less calcium in the urine.
B. prevents osteoporosis.
C. facilitates calcium absorption from the small intestine.
D. is activated by the liver and kidney.
B. prevents osteoporosis
Magnesium deficiency causes all of the following except
A. muscle pain.
B. anemia.
C. seizures.
D. irregular heartbeat.
B. anemia
What is magnesium's primary function?
A.
It maintains mucus production in the digestive tract
B.
It acts as the carrier for calcium absorption
C.
It is important in hemoglobin synthesis
D.
It is important for nerve and heart function
D. it is important for nerve and heart function
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
A.
riboflavin.
B.
vitamin D.
C.
vitamin A.
D.
niacin.
B. vitamin D
Regarding use of calcium supplements, which of the following is true?
A.
For maximum absorbability, any form of calcium supplements should be taken between meals.
B.
The USP label warns consumers that the supplement may contain high levels of lead or aluminum.
C.
Intakes over 500 milligrams per dose may interfere with absorption of iron and zinc.
D.
Supplements containing oyster shell and dolomite are recommended for their high bioavailability.
C. Intakes over 500 milligrams per dose may interfere with absorption of iron and zinc.
The network of protein fibers within bone is called
A.
the periosteum.
B.
dentin.
C.
the bone matrix.
D.
enamel.
C. the bone matrix
1. Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
A. niacin.
B. riboflavin.
C. vitamin D.
D. vitamin A.
C. Vitamin D
4. Blood calcium concentration is regulated by
A. bones
B. intestines.
C. kidneys.
D. All of these choices are correct.
D. All of these choices are correct.
3.Trabecular bone
A. has a porous structure.
B. is the site of blood cell synthesis.
C. is more rapidly remodeled than cortical bone.
D. All of these choices are correct.
D. All of these choices are correct
1. Soft bones resulting from a deficiency of vitamin D in adulthood is known as
A. osteoporosis.
B. osteopenia.
C. osteomalacia.
D. osteopathy.
C. Osteomalacia
Tetany is a sign of low blood levels of
A. calcium.
B. vitamin D.
C. phosphorus.
D. magnesium.
A. Calcium
4. The most accurate method of assessing bone health is
A. computed tomography.
B. dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.
C. single energy x-ray absorptiometry.
D. quantitative ultrasound.
B. dual energy x-ray absorpiometry.
Vitamin D and vitamin K share which of the following characteristics?
A. Both can be synthesized to some extent by the body
B. Both affect intestinal absorption of calcium
C. Both are involved in blood clotting
D. All of these choices are correct.
A. both can be synthesized to some extent by the body
Type 1 osteoporosis
A. most dramatically affects trabecular bone.
B. is characterized by loss of both trabecular and cortical bone.
C. is mainly due to increased estrogen levels.
D. affects both men and women over the age of 60.
A. most dramatically affects trabecular bone
Which would you expect to furnish the largest amount of calcium?
A. 1 medium apple
B. 1 slice of bread
C. 1 ounce of cheese
D. 1 medium egg
C. 1 ounce of cheese
Vitamin K is important for bone health because it
A. enhances absorption of dietary calcium.
B. activates proteins that bind calcium.
C. enhances absorption of dietary phosphorus.
D. activates blood clotting factors.
B. Activates proteins that bind calcium
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
A. vitamin A.
B. niacin.
C. riboflavin.
D. vitamin D.
D. vitamin D.
In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in
A. the liver.
B. intracellular fluid.
C. nerve cells.
D. bones and teeth
D. bones and teeth
8.The mixture of calcium and phosphorus that mineralizes bone is called
A. dentin.
B. calcium citrate
C. calcium carbonate.
D. hydroxyapatite.
D. hydroxyapatite
10.Exceeding the UL for phosphorus can lead to
A. kidney damage.
B. excessive bone growth.
C. blood clots.
D. All of these choices are correct.
A. kidney damage
Postmenopausal women are more prone to fractures than premenopausal women primarily because
A. low estrogen levels accelerate bone loss.
B. low progesterone levels accelerate bone loss.
C. older women are unable to maintain physical activity.
D. accumulation of iron in the blood depletes bone minerals.
A. low estrogen levels accelerate bone loss
To promote bone health, exclusively breastfed infants require supplemental
A. calcium.
B. phosphorus.
C. vitamin D.
D. magnesium.
C. Vitamin D
The childhood disease rickets is due to a deficiency of
A. vitamin D.
B. vitamin A.
C. vitamin C.
D. vitamin K.
A. Vitamin D
Fat malabsorption may contribute to poor bone health because of impaired absorption of
A. vitamin D.
B. magnesium.
C. calcium.
D. phosphorus.
A. vitamin D
Type 1 osteoporosis
A. most dramatically affects trabecular bone.
B. is characterized by loss of both trabecular and cortical bone.
C. is mainly due to increased estrogen levels.
D. affects both men and women over the age of 60.
A. most dramatically affects trabecular bone.
Vitamin K is important for bone health because it
A. enhances absorption of dietary calcium.
B. activates proteins that bind calcium.
C. enhances absorption of dietary phosphorus.
D. activates blood clotting factors.
B. activates proteins that bind calcium
Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of
A. vitamin A.
B. niacin.
C. riboflavin.
D. vitamin D.
D. vitamin D.
The most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet is
A. poultry.
B. whole-grain cereals.
C. yellow squash.
D. fortified milk.
D. fortified milk.
The most effective treatment for preventing bone loss in those at risk for osteoporosis is
A. adequate bone building nutrients.
B. estrogen and increasing calcium.
C. increasing calcium.
D. increasing calcium and vitamin D.
A. adequate bone building nutrients
1.
Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because


A. it is absorbed and transported via the lymphatic system.
B. absorption requires bile and fat.
C. it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun.
D. it can be stored.
C. it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun.
_______________ inhibit(s) osteoclast activity to prevent bone loss
A. Calcium citrate
B. HRT
C. SERMs
D. Bisphosphonates
D. Bisphosphonates
Postmenopausal women are more prone to fractures than premenopausal women primarily because
A. low estrogen levels accelerate bone loss.
B. low progesterone levels accelerate bone loss.
C. older women are unable to maintain physical activity.
D. accumulation of iron in the blood depletes bone minerals.
A. low estrogen levels accelerate bone loss.
All of the following populations are at risk for poor magnesium status except
A. Alcoholics.
*B. Vegans.
C. People who use diuretic medications.
D. People with excessive vomiting or diarrhea.
B. Vegans
Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because
A. it is absorbed and transported via the lymphatic system.
B. absorption requires bile and fat.
C. it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun.
D. it can be stored.
C. it can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun
Food sources of calcium are superior to supplemental sources because
A. food sources are less likely to be contaminated by harmful minerals.
B. many people find it difficult to adhere to a supplement regimen.
C. food sources contain additional nutrients and phytochemicals.
D. food sources contain additional nutrients and phytochemicals.
D. food sources contain additional nutrients and phytochemicals
The mineral that gives hardness to teeth and bones is
a. selenium.
b. zinc.
c. copper.
d. fluoride.
D. fluoride