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47 Cards in this Set

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Generally refers to a decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. This can be caused by many factors, such as iron deficiency or blood loss.
Weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared. A value of 25 or greater indicates a higher risk for body weight related disorders if one is overfat.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A condition caused by uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells.
A disease characterized by the deposition of fatty material in the blood vessels that serve the heart, which in turn can lead to heart damage and death.
Cardiovascular (Heart) Disease
A waxy lipid found in all body cells; it has a structure containing multiple rings (steroid structure).
Long-standing, developing over time; Slow and tends to remain.
A loss of functioning liver cells, which ared replaced by nonfunctioning connective tissue. Any substance that poisons liver cells can lead to this disease.
A disease characterized by high blood glucose, resulting from either insufficient or no release of the hormone insulin by the pancreas or general inability of insulin to act on certain body cells, such as muscle cells.
A substance that, when left out of a diet leads to signs of poor health. The body either can't produce this nutrient or it can't produce it fast enough to meet its needs. Then, if added back to a diet before permanent damage occurs, the affected aspects of health are restored.
Essential Nutrient
The science of food, the nutrients and the substances therin, their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease, and the process by which the organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes, and excretes food substances
The nourishing substances we, for the most part, must obtain from food.
A condition in which blood pressure remains persistently elevated. Obesity, inactivity, alcohol intake, and excess salt intake all can contribute to the problem.
The heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1000 grams (1 liter) of water 1 degree Celsius.
Kilocalorie (kcal)
A condition characterized by excess body fat, typically defined in clinical settings as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or above.
Decreased bone mass where no obvious cases can be found. This bone loss is related to the effects of again, genetic background, poor diet, and hormonal effects of postmenopausal status in women.
An aspect of our lives--such as heredity, lifestyle choices or nutritional habits--that may make us more likely to develop a disease.
Risk Factor
The loss of body function that results from a blood clot or other change in arteries in the brain that affects blood flow. This in turn causes the death of brain tissue.
A compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Smallest combining unit of an element.
A compound containing much carbon and hydrogen, little oxygen, and sometimes other atoms.
Major part of most lipds; composed of a chain of carbons flanked by hydrogen with an acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other.
Fatty Acid
The major form of lipid in the body an din food. It is composed of three fatty acids bonded to glycerol, an alcohol.
A fatty acid containing no carbon-carbon double bonds.
Saturated Fatty Acid
A fatty acid containing one or more carbon-carbon double bonds.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
A compound that speeds the rate of a chemical process but is not altered by the process.
The building blok for proteins containing a central carbon atom with a nitrogen atom and other atoms attached.
Amino Acid
An interaction between two chemicals that changes both participants.
Chemical Reaction
Any substance that contains carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms in the chemical structure
Any substance lacking carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms in the chemical structure
A substance that other substances dissolve in.
Chemical processes in the body by which energy is provided in useful forms and vital activities are sustained.
The living basis of plant and animal organization.
The hereditary material on chromosomes that provide the blueprints for the production of cell proteins.
An atom with an unequal number of electrons and protons.
A compound of sodium and chloride in a 40:60 ratio.
The primarily physiological drive to find and eat food, mostly regulated by innate cues to eating.
The primarily psychological influences that encourage us to find and eat food, often in the absense of obvious hunger.
State in which there is no longer a desire to eat; a feeling of satisfaction.
The main sites in the body used for digestion and absorption of nutrients. It consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus.
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
A compound secreted into the bloodstream by one type of cells that acts to control the function of another type of cells.
Natural body tranquilizers that may be involved in the feeding response.
A hormone made by the adrenal gland that, among other functions, stimulates the production of glucose from amino acids and increase the desire to eat.
A group of fat storing cells.
Adipose Tissue
A chemical substance made in the hypothalamus that stimulates food intake.
Neuropeptide Y
A hormone made by adipose tissue in proportion to total fat stores in the body that influences long-term regulation of fat mass.
A neurotransmitter synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan that appears to decrease the desire to eat carbohydrates and to induce sleep.
A hormone that stimulates enzyme release from the pancreas, bile release from the gallbladder, and hunger regulation.
Cholecystokinin (CCK)