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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Lady of Cofitachequi
- 1540: de Soto and the Spanish arrived at Cofitachequi in modern day South Carolina
- Lady of Cofitachequi, the female chief of the village, was carried out to meet them
- She gave them food and told them where to look for gold and silver
- They took her as a captive when they left, but she managed to escape
- Her strategy of kindness towards the Spanish kept her village from being destroyed like all of the other villages de Soto encountered --> very intelligent woman
- The first Americans
- 12,000 years ago
- Eventually, their main focus became agriculture, and this was when the major civilizations of the Americas were formed
- 300 BCE - Founded in central Mexico
- Mesoamerican civilization
- 700 years later, it was home to 100,000 (approx.)
- One of the largest urban cities on the planet; commercial network covered vast area
- Located on the Yucatán Peninsula in eastern Mexico
- Created first system of writing ever to be used in the Americas
- Made great advances in the astronomical field
- Demise was most likely due to constant warfare among city-states and low food supply
- Inhabited what is now the southwestern region of the United States
- Built 14 large stone structures, each of which had around 200 rooms, in Chaco Canyon
- Chaco Canyon became an important center for the trade and processing of turquoise
- Lived in modern-day mid-wester and southeastern regions of the United States
- Cahokia, then called City of the Sun, had the largest population of all the cities in the Northern Hemisphere
- Designed an accurate calendar and built a pyramid that is still the largest earthwork ever built in the Americas
- Inhabited the Valley of Mexico
- Led by their war goddess, Huitzilopochtli
- Society consisted of a hierarchy of social classes
- War goddess of the Aztecs
- Led them to build their capital and Tenochtitlán
- Human sacrifices were constantly made for her
- 1502: 5,000 people were sacrificed
- Aztecs participated in ritual combat for her
- Led them to conquer their neighboring civilizations
- Aztec capital
- Huitzilopochtli led them to build their capital there
- Society consisted of a heirarchy of social classes
- Located in the Valley of Mexico
North American Sexual Division of Labor
- Men hunted; women prepared food and took care of jobs around the house
- In North America, children were looked after by their mothers, but they learned their jobs from whichever parent was of their same gender
African Sexual Division of Labor
- Usually shared jobs in West African communities
- Women were responsible for food preparation and childcare, while men hunted and fished
European Sexual Division of Labor
- Men dominated society
- Women helped with harvest and planting while men did most of the other work in the field
- Women were responsible for mostly household tasks; men held the majority of power in both families and societies
Sexual Divisions of Labor in General
- General Pattern: Men were assigned jobs like hunting; women were assigned jobs like childcare and food preparation
Upper Guinea
- Influenced by the customs and beliefs of the Muslim Mediterranean
- Trade between these two communities was one of the most important connections among Europe, Africa, and Asia
Lower Guinea
- Farming civilization with traditional African religious practices
- Decentralized political and social power
- More similar to American natives
Dual-sex principle
- Basis of the social systems of Lower Guinea
- Men governed men; women governed women
Sandé and Poro Cults
- In Upper Guinea, women entered Sandé Cult and men entered Poro
- In charge of the spiritual lives of the society
- Rules of Sandé only applied to women
- Rules of Poro only applied to men
Black Death
- Plague that struck multiple times during the 14th century
- Killed 1/3 of the European population
- Led to large economic decline as well as political, social, and religious unrest
Hundred Years' War
- 1337-1453
- Between England and France over the issue of the English claiming the French throne
- Interrupted overland trade routes and thus caused eastern Mediterranean merchants to use sea routes to connect to the Netherlands
- Led to use of lateen sail and the improvement of the astrolabe and quadrant
Lateen Sail, Astrolabe, and Quadrant
- Lateen sail = triangular sail that gave ships the ability to sail northward out of the Mediterranean and around the coast of Europe by improving their maneuverability
- Astrolabe and quadrant were navigational tools that gave sailor the ability to measure the relationship of the sun, moon, or stars to the horizon
- Important when Europeans began using sea routes and exploring the oceans
Ferdinand and Isabella
- God married in 1469
- Made Spain strongly Catholic
- Sent all Jews and Muslims away from Spain
- Financed Columbus's voyage after Portugal refused
Marco Polo's "Travels"
- Published in 1477
- Described a merchant's adventures in China, which Polo wrote was bordered on the east side by ocean
- Caused many Europeans to believe that Europe could trade directly with China through the ocean
Azores, Madeiras, and Canaries
- Mediterranean Atlantic region was west of Spain and southeast of the Azores, north of the Canaries, and east of the Madeiras
- Europeans found islands in the 1300s
- Wind patterns were discovered
- Madeiras and Canaries became lands for sugar plantations
- Azores became lands for growing wheat
Northeast Trades / Westerlies
- NE Trades blow towards the South along the African and Iberian coasts
- Made sailing to the Canaries easy for Europeans, but made getting back difficult
- Westerlies allowed them to sail around the NE Trades
- Blow North along the North American coast and then East towards Europe
- Sailing around the NETs using the Ws became the key to exploring the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
Prince Henry the Navigator
- Sent ships annually towards the African coast in hopes of discovering a route to Asia through the oceans
- Son of King John I of Portugal
- Knew that the country who found the treasures of Africa and Asia would gain much wealth
- Bartholomew Dias and Vasco de Gama were more successful
- De Gama reached India long after Henry's death
São Tomé
- Island off African coast
- Used as an expansion of Madeira in the 1480s when it had reached its capacity
- Sugar plantations
- Became first economy based primarily on the bondage of black Africans
Christopher Columbus
- Born in Genoa, Italy
- Sailor and mapmaker
- Knew the world was round (most actually did)
- Thought that China was only 3,000 miles away from Eastern Europe
- Decided to explore this idea; rejected by Portuguese authorities
- Funded by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
- Pinta, Niña, Santa Maria
- Landed in the Bahamas, thought he had arrived at the Indies (why we call Native Americans "Indians")
- Log (contained riches, plants and animals, and natives) became motivation for other similar journeys
- These three things became themes of European exploration
Amerigo Vespucci
- From Florence
- First to publish idea of a new continent
- 1507 - New land was named America
Leif Ericsson
- He and the Norse found North America about 500 years before Columbus's voyage
- Named the site on which they settled Vinland, which was actually near Newfoundland
John Cabot
- First European to bring news of the northern coastline of the new land
- European usually given credit for discovering North America
- Claimed the land he found for England
Hernando Cortés
- Conquistador who took control of the Aztec empire in 1521
- Took great amounts of gold and silver
- Fathered a child with his translator, Malinche
- Child became one of the first mestizos (children of mixed blood)
- Given to Cortés as a gift from the Mayas
- Baptized as a Christian under the name "Doña Marina"
- Served as Cortés's translator
- Child became one of the first mestizos
Encomienda system
- Allowed people from Indian villages to be given to conquistadors as slaves as rewards
- Legalized Indian slavery until a new set of laws forbade the Spanish to enslave Indians
- They were still allowed to take money and goods
- Led to the importation of Africans to increase labor force
Spanish missionaries
- Sent to convert people in the New World to Christianity
- Generally successful
Columbian Exchange
- Transfer of diseases, plants, and animals between Europe and the New World
- Result of the 15th and 16th century European voyages and of colonization by the Spanish
- Natives learned to raise European livestock; Europeans and Africans learned to plant American crops
- Improvement in diets led to doubling of population from the 15th century to the 18th
- Small pox and measles were given to the Native Americans, killing 90% of some populations
- Europeans given syphilis, which spread throughout Europe and Asia
- Three major commodities being exchanged were sugar, horses, and tobacco
John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake
- English "sea dogs" who raided Spanish ships sailing back from the West Indies
- Main contributor to the start of the war that ended in the defeat of the Spanish Armada
Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh
- Members of a group that attempted to create outposts that could trade with Indians and provide bases for attacks on New Spain
- Each authorized to colonize in North America
- Gilbert died before he could
- Raleigh set up a settlement on Roanoke Island ("Virginia," after the Virgin Queen)
- Unsuccessful as well
- England's first attempt to create a permanent settlement on the coast of N. America
Thomas Harriot's "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia"
- Published in 1588
- Described people, plants, and animals that he encountered when he sailed to Roanoke
- Explained why the colony had failed
- Said future colonizers needed to treat the Indians more humanely
- Keys to economic development in the new world: familiar commodities (grapes, iron, copper, fur), exotic products (maize, cassava, and tobacco), and the ease with which Europeans could manipulate the natives
- Dominance in N. America was actually more difficult than he made it seem