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127 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
geography
earth description
five themes of geography
location, place, human/environment interaction, movement, and region
location
where something is located
absolute location
exact position of a place on earth. located by measurements on a map or globe.
place
every location has different physical and cultural characteristics.
human/environment interaction
the way that humans affect the environment that surrounds them.
movement
movement of peoples affects history greatly.
region
large areas defined by common characteristics
cartographer
a mapmaker
globes
the only accurate way to represent the earth. earth is a sphere
grid lines
lines drawn on a map or globe for measurement purposes.
degrees
measurement used when working with latitude and longitude.
latitude
lines drawn in east and west direction and measure north and south on the equator.
longitude
lines drawn in a north and south direction and measure distance east and west of the prime meridian.
equator
0 degrees latitude. imaginary line that circles the globe horizontally halfway between the north and south poles.
prime meridian
0 degrees longitude. imaginary line that runs vertically from the north pole to the south pole
international date line
longitudinal line lying opposite the prime meridian.
hemispheres
equator and rime meridian divide the earth into 4 hemispheres. northern, southern, eastern, and western.
contienents
large landmasses containing most of the earths land surface. 7 contienents on earth.
north america, south america, africa, europe, asia, australia, antarctica
map projection
showing the round earth on a flat map. cannot be done without some distortions and misrepresenting
mercator projection
common flat rectangular map. contienents are somewhat enlarged, but shape is true and direction is true. size and distance are not correct
interrupted projection
cut up sphere. shows size og landmasses more accurately. but it is difficult to calculate distances.
robinson projection
most used today. world depicted in a flat topped oval. distortion occurs at the northern and southern edges, bu the projection gives a fairly accurate view of most sizes, shapes, directions, and distances.
physical map
shows natural features, such as rivers and mountains
political map
shows places that people have created, such as cities or the boundaries of states and nations.
special purpose maps
show information on specific topics
landforms
4 makor landforms. mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus
topography
physical features of the earth's surface
elevation
height of land above sea level
mountains
highest and most rugged landforms. usually occur in ranges, or groups
plains
broad flat areas of land usually close to sea level
plateaus
high, flat landforms, sometimes several thousand feet high
oceans
largest bodies of water. 4 major oceans atlantic, pacific, indian, and arctic.
70% of the earth is covered by water
seas
usually smaller than oceans, are often landlocked, or surrounded by land on all sides.
lakes and rivers
provide freshwater, transportation, energy, and boundaries.
mississippi river and tributaries
largest river system in the us
tributaries
smaller rivers and streams
hawaiian islands
cluster of 8 large islands and many smaller ones located 2,400 miles west of CA.
pacific coast
series of mountain ranges run from alaska to mexico. they include the coast mountains, cascade range, and sierra nevadas
intermountain region
land consists of a huge plateau. the great basin, dry deserts, and deep canyons existt here.
rocky mountains
run from alaska to mexico
interior plains
east of the rockies. huge open and rolling expanse of land.
canadian shield
covers a large part of canada. rich with buried minerals
appalachian moutains
older than the rockies, lower peaks due to age and weathering
coastal plains
plain begins in massachussetts and gradually expands into the southwest.
climate
usual weather pattern of an area ofver a long period of time
weather
a condition of the earth's atmosphere over a short period of time
tropical climate
florida and hawaii. hot, humid weather most of the year.
mediterranean
california. mild wet winters and dry hot summers.
marine
often moist and rainy climate found near a coast. pacific northwest
highland
found in mountains. climates are cooler
steppe
east of the rockies. dry grassland area with little rainfall. temperatures are extreme.
desert
less than 10 inches of rain per year. mainly found in the southwest
tundra and subarctic
northwest alaska and upper canada. short summers that sometimes rise above freezing, long cold winters
humid contienental and humid subtropical
cover nearly half of the us.
humid contienental
mild summers and cold winters
humid subtropical
southeastern us and lower latitudes. warm and humid subtropical climates
prehistoric
the time before history was recorded.
archeology
the study of the unwritten past
artifacts
things that have been found from thousands of years ago
paleo indians
the people who came from syria
beringia
the bridge connected land during the last ice age and were in search of food. the mammoths were following and so the huntergatherers followed them
migration
mass movement, the movement from one region to another. 8000 b.c.
society
a group that shares a common culture. religion, foods, language, ethnicity, government, architecture
civilization
technology, cities for trade centers, specialization, organization of famrs, government and religion, systems of records. thats what you need for a civilizatition.
domestication
Breeding plants and animals to suit your needs
olmei
mother vulture
glups
symbols and pictures they used to write
Maya
souther Mexico, developed calendars. Built palaces, bridges, temples. they just went up and disappeared
Aztec
Mexico Pyramids and created empires. They had sacrifices. They died from diseases. They were conquered by the Europeans.
Inca
Rich, strong and powerful. developed a transportation system. Equador to Chile. Very sophisticated irrigation system. Moho Kams - around southwest Arizona
Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Housa, Benin
Controlled trade and were able to build powerful armies.
Ghana
controlled gold and salt trade. taxed all that came in. first power and
Islam
Came to Ghana and invaded
Mali
Took over in 13th century. Became one of the largest in the world. Excellent university in Timbuktu. Build mosques. Mansa Musa world known, then weakens.
paleo indians
the people who came from syria
beringia
the bridge connected land during the last ice age and were in search of food. the mammoths were following and so the huntergatherers followed them
migration
mass movement, the movement from one region to another. 8000 b.c.
society
a group that shares a common culture. religion, foods, language, ethnicity, government, architecture
civilization
technology, cities for trade centers, specialization, organization of famrs, government and religion, systems of records. thats what you need for a civilizatition.
domestication
Breeding plants and animals to suit your needs
olmei
mother vulture
glups
symbols and pictures they used to write
Maya
souther Mexico, developed calendars. Built palaces, bridges, temples. they just went up and disappeared
Aztec
Mexico Pyramids and created empires. They had sacrifices. They died from diseases. They were conquered by the Europeans.
Inca
Rich, strong and powerful. developed a transportation system. Equador to Chile. Very sophisticated irrigation system. Moho Kams - around southwest Arizona
Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Housa, Benin
Controlled trade and were able to build powerful armies.
Ghana
controlled gold and salt trade. taxed all that came in. first power and
Islam
Came to Ghana and invaded
Mali
Took over in 13th century. Became one of the largest in the world. Excellent university in Timbuktu. Build mosques. Mansa Musa world known, then weakens.
Songhai
15th Century. Very efficient tax system. Muslim also
Housa
Known for Artistry. Carving, prize wood, ivory and metal
Benin
They had the Ivory Coast, Slave Coast
Europe in the middle ages 400-1300
Time of great social and political instability. Lots of war, people scared. developed feudalism
vassals
lesser people
lord
land owner
tenants
rent from the lord
knights
military of the lord
peasants
tenants and serts were not free, but tennants could leave
manor
the place the knight protected
monastery
where monks studied Christianity and were Roman Catholics
Gutenberg 1454
made the printing press
Bubonic plague
a deadly disease that killed thousands
drought
a low period of rainfall
diverse
different
environment
the world around you
humanism
study of human worth and achievements
instability
lack of stability
irrigate
water crops
log
a record
nomad
a person who has no permanent home but moves constantly
philosophy
study the meaning of life
savanna
grassland with shrubs and trees
serf
a peasant who farmed and did other duties for the lord and who could not leave the estate
theory
a scientific belief
Crusades
were organized by the Europeans to win control of the Holy Land from the Muslims. 1096
Reformation
Began because of Martin Luther's 95 statements criticiaing the Catholic church
Mansa Musa,
a Muslim who followed the religion of Islam
Deganawida
Convinces 5 Native American nations to form the Iroquios League which brought a period of peace.
Mound builders
native americans who built large earthen structures
martin luther
began reform movement and was a german monk. protested the catholic church, broke away and became a protestant. lutheran church
christopher columbus
italian sailor who sailed across the atlantic ocean.
mammoth
animal resembling hairy elephant with long curved tusks
pyramid
a very large structure with a square base and four sides slanting upward
irrigation system
ditches that bring water to crops
canyon
long narrow valley between high clliffs
mound
hill of earth, often built over a grave or to protect a population from attack.