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61 Cards in this Set

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How do managers get things done?
Managers get things done through other people.
Where do managers do their work?
Managers do their work in an organization.
What is an organization?
An organization is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
Name the four management functions condensed from the ones written by the French Industrialist Henri Fayol.
1. Planning; 2. Organizing; 3. Leading; 4. Controlling.
What is meant by the "controlling" function?
Monitoring, comparing, and potential correcting is what is meant by the controlling function.
Name the graduate student at MIT, who, in the late 1960's, studied 5 executives to determine what managers did on their jobs.
Henry Mintzberg
What did Henry Mintzberg conclude after studying these 5 executives?
Mintzberg concluded that managers perform 10 different, highly interrelated roles, or sets of behaviors attributable to their jobs.
Name the three Interpersonal Roles as concluded by Mintzberg.
1. Figurehead 2. Leadership
3. Liaison.
Give an example of a figurehead role:
When the president of a college hands out diplomas at commencement or a factory supervisor gives a group of high school students a tour of the plant she is acting in a figurehead role.
What does the leadership role include?
All managers also have a leadership role. This role includes hiring, training, motivating, and disciplining employees.
Describe Mintzberg's liaison role.
Mintzberg described this activity as contacting outsiders who provide the manager with information. These may be individuals or groups inside or outside the organization.
Name the three Informational Roles as concluded by Mintzberg.
1. Monitor 2. Disseminator
3. Spokesperson.
Describe the monitor role.
Managers get information by reading magazines and talking with other people to learn of changes in the public's tastes, what competitors may be planning, etc.
Describe the disseminator role.
Managers also act as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members. This is the disseminator role.
Describe when managers perform as a spokesperson.
Managers perform a spokesperson role when they represent the organization to outsiders.
Name the four Decisional Roles as concluded by Mintzberg.
1. Entrepreneur
2. Disturbance handlers
3. Resource Allocators
4. Negotiator.
Describe when managers perform as a Entrepreneur.
In the entrepreneur role, managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization's performance.
Describe when managers perform as disturbance handlers.
As disturbance handlers, managers take corrective action in response to unforeseen problems.
Describe when managers perform as resource allocators.
As resource allocators, managers are responsible for allocating human, physical, and monetary resources.
Describe when managers perform in a negotiator role.
Managers perform in a negotiator role when they discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit.
Define technical skills.
Technical skills encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise.
Describe human skills.
The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, individually and in groups, describes human skills.
Define conceptual skills.
The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations require conceptional skills.
Name the three essential management skills as identified by Robert Katz.
Robert Katz has identified three essential management skills: technical, human, and conceptual.
Luthans and his associates studied more than 450 managers. What they found was that these managers all engaged in four managerial activities. Name them.
1. Traditional management: Decision making, planning, and controlling.
2. Communication: Exchanging routine information and processing paperwork.
3.Human resource management: Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing, and training.
4. Networking:Socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders.
Among successful managers, which of Luthan's managerial activities made the largest relative contribution to success? Which made the least contribution?
Among successful managers, networking made the largest relative contribution to success, and human resource management activities made the least relative contribution.
Define Organizational Behavior.
Organizational behavior (often abbreviated as OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness.
What do we mean when we use the phrase systematic study?
When we use the phrase systematic study, we mean looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and basing our conclusions on scientific evidence--that is on data gathered under controlled conditions and measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner.
What does systematic study replace?
Systematic study replaces intuition, or those "gut feelings" about "why I do what I do" and "what makes others tick."
What type of science is organizational behavior?
Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built on contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines.
What are the predominant behavioral disciplines that contribute to the study of organizational behavior?
The predominant areas are psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and political science.
What is Psychology?
The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
What is Sociology?
Sociology is the study of people in relation to the fellow human beings.
What is Social Psychology?
Social Psychology is an area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.
What is Anthropology?
Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
What is Political Science?
Political Science is the study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.
Define contingency variables.
OB concepts must reflect situational, or contingency, conditions. We can say that "X" leads to "Y", but only under conditions specified in "Z" ( the contingency variables.)
Define situational factors.
Situational factors are variables that moderate the relationship between two or more other variables and improve the correlation.
Globalization affects a manager's people skills in at least 2 ways. Name them.
First, if you're a manager, you're increasingly likely to find yourself in a foreign assignment. You may be transferred to your employer's operating division or subsidiary in another country. Second, even in your own country, you're going to find yourself working with bosses, peers, and other employees who were born and raised in different cultures.
Define workforce diversity.
One of the most important broad-based challenges currently facing organizations is adapting to people who are different. The term we use for describing this challenge is workforce diversity.
How do globalization and workforce diversity differ?
While globalization focuses on differences between people from different countries, workforce diversity addresses differences among people within given countries.
Whom does the term workforce diversity encompass?
The term encompasses anyone who varies from the so-called norm. In addition to the more obvious groups--women, African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans--it also includes the physically disabled, gays and lesbians and the elderly.
The concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, ethnicity and inclusion of other diverse groups defines what concept?
Workforce diversity.
What does QM stand for?
QM stands for quality management.
What is quality management (QM)?
Quality management (QM) is the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes.
What does it mean "to empower" employees?
Putting employees in charge of what they do is "empowering" them.
What are ethical dilemmas?
Ethical dilemmas are situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct.
What are dependent variables?
Dependent variables are the key factors that you want to explain or predict and that are affected by some other factor.
What are the primary dependent variables in OB?
The primary variables in OB are productivity, absenteeism, turnover, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship.
Define process reengineering.
Process reengineering is reconsidering how work would be done and an organization structured if it were starting over.
What is productivity?
Productivity is a performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency.
How can you determine if an organization is productive?
An organization is productive if it achieves its goals and does so by transferring inputs to outputs at the lowest cost. As such, productivity implies a concern for both effectiveness and efficiency.
Define effectiveness.
Effectiveness is achievement of goals.
A Hospital, for example, is effective when it successfully meets the needs of its clientele.
Define efficiency.
Efficiency is the ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it. A hospital, for example, is efficient when it can successfully meet the needs of its clientele at a low cost.
Define Absenteeism.
Absenteeism is the failure to report to work.
Define Turnover.
Turnover is the voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization.
Define Organizational Citizenship.
Organizational Citizenship (OCB)is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
What is job satisfaction?
Job satisfaction is a dependent variable which we define as an individual's general attitude toward his or her job.
What are the major determinants of productivity, absenteeism, turnover, OCB, and job satisfaction?
Independent variables. These are the presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable.
List the six Independent Variables.
1. Biographical characteristics
2. Ability 3. Values 4. attitudes
5. Personality 6. Emotions
List four individual-level variables that have been shown to affect employee behavior.
1. Perception
2. Individual decision making
3. Learning
4. Motivation