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42 Cards in this Set

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what is the basic unit of the living body?
CELL

*there are about 100 trillion cells in the body
What is the most abundant single type of cell in the body?
RED BLOOD CELLS

*25 trillion in number
What percent of the adult human body is fluid? and what is it composed of?
60%; water, ions and other substances
The fluid occupying the spaces outside the cells and comprises 1/3 of the body's fluids
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (ECF)
Name some constituents that are available in the ECF
sodium, chloride,O2, glucose,bicarbonate ions, amino acids, fatty acids, CO2, etc.
ICF contents
"Mg Kakam P"
Magnesium, Potassium, and Phosphate ions
This is the Internal environment of all cells which contains ions and nutrients needed by the cells to maintain life
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (ECF)
Another term for the ECF, which was coined by the French physiologist Claude Bernanrd
MILIEU INTERIEUR
Means maintenance of nearly constant conditions in the internal
environment
HOMEOSTASIS
ECF transport:
What is the FIRST stage of transport to other parts of the body?
movement of
blood through the body in the blood vessels
ECF transport:
What is the SECOND stage of transport to other parts of the body?
movement of fluid between the blood capillaries
and the intercellular spaces between the tissue
cells
How many times does blood in the circulation traverse the entire circulatory circuit AT REST
ONCE per minute
How many times does blood in the circulation traverse the entire circulatory circuit during EXTREME ACTIVITY
SIX TIMES per minute
T or F: As blood passes through the blood capillaries,
continual exchange of ECF also occurs
bet. the plasma portion of the blood and the interstitial fluid that fills the intercellular spaces
TRUE
The walls of the capillaries
are permeable to most molecules in the plasma
of the blood, with the exception of..
LARGE PLASMA PROTEIN molecules
T or F: most cells are located not more than 50 micrometers from a capillary
TRUE
*this ensures diffusion of almost any substance
from the capillary to the cell within a few seconds.
Thus, the ECF everywhere in the body—both that of the plasma and that of the interstitial fluid—is continually being mixed, thereby maintaining almost complete homogeneity of the
ECF throughout the body
T or F: the ECF everywhere in the body of a normal person is almost completely homogenous throughout the body
TRUE
the ECF everywhere in the body—both that of the plasma and that of the interstitial fluid—is continually being mixed, thereby maintaining almost complete homogeneity of the
ECF throughout the body
Origin of Nutrients in the ECF:
How does blood acquire oxygen?
The blood picks up oxygen in the alveoli (lungs),by diffusion, thus acquiring the oxygen needed by the cells.
Origin of Nutrients in the
ECF:
How does blood acquire carbohydrates, fatty acids, and
amino acids?
A large portion of the blood
pumped by the heart also passes through the walls of
the GI tract. Here different dissolved nutrients, including CHO, fatty acids, and
amino acids, are absorbed from the ingested food into
the ECF of the blood.
T or F: All substances absorbed from the GI tract can be used by cells in their absorbed form
FALSE
The liver needs to change the chemical compositions of
many of these substances to more usable forms, and
other tissues of the body—fat cells, gastrointestinal
mucosa, kidneys, and endocrine glands—help modify
the absorbed substances or store them until they are
needed.
What tissues in the body help modify the absorbed substances or store them until they are needed?
fat cells, gastrointestinal
mucosa, kidneys, and endocrine glands
How does the musculoskeletal system fit into
the homeostatic functions of the body?
MOTILITY of nutrients and PROTECTION against adverse surroundings
muscles help the body to move to the appropriate place at the appropriate time to obtain the foods required for nutrition. The musculoskeletal system also provides motility for protection against adverse surroundings, without which the entire body, along with its homeostatic mechanisms, could be destroyed instantaneously
What is the most abundant of all the end products of metabolism.
CO2
How does the body remove CO2 from the blood?
CO2 is released from the blood into the lung alveoli; the respiratory movement of air into and out of the lungs carries the carbon dioxide to the atmosphere
What substances do the kidney remove from the blood?
end products
of cellular metabolism, such as urea and uric acid; excesses of ions and water from the food that might have accumulated in the ECF
How does the kidney play a role in keeping homeostasis?
Filtration of plasma through glomeruli-->tubules-->reabsorption of substances (glucose, amino acid,water) into blood and poor reabsorption of metabolic end products (Urea) not needed by the body
filtering large quantities of plasma through the glomeruli into the tubules and then reabsorbing into the blood those substances needed by the body, such as glucose, amino acids, appropriate amounts of water, and many of the ions. Most of the other substances that are not needed by the body, especially the metabolic end products
such as urea, are reabsorbed poorly and pass through
the renal tubules into the urine.
What organ systems help in regulating body functions?
Nervous System,Endocrine System and Reproductive system
What role does the nervous system have in regulating body functions?
it controls many functions of the internal organs,including the level of pumping activity by the heart, movements of the gastrointestinal tract, and secretion by many of the body’s glands
What role does the endocrine system have in regulating body functions?
REGULATES many METABOLIC functions
Hormones are transported
in the extracellular fluid to all parts of the body to help regulate cellular function.
What role doesTHYROID HORMONE have in regulating body functions?
increases the rates of most chemical reactions
in all cells, thus helping to set the tempo of bodily
activity
The regulation of oxygen concentration in the tissues is vested principally in the chemical characteristics of hemoglobin
oxygen-buffering function of hemoglobin
The mechanism of maintaining an almost exact and constant
oxygen concentration in the extracellular fluid depends on..
HEMOGLOBIN
If there is TOO MUCH O2 in the tissue capillaries, what happens to the oxygen in the hemoglobin?
oxygen will NOT be released from the hemoglobin
If the O2 in the tissue capillaries/fluid is TOO LOW, what happens to the oxygen in the hemoglobin?
sufficient oxygen is released to re-establish an adequate concentration
This is a protein carried by RBC that picks up oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to the peripheral tissues to maintain the viability of cells
HEMOGLOBIN
It is the major end product of the oxidative reactions
in cells
CO2
*If all CO2 formed in the
cells continued to accumulate in tissue fluids, the mass action of the CO2 itself would soon HALT all energy-giving reactions of the cells
If there is a higher than normal carbon dioxide concentration
in the blood, how would the body normally respond?
this will excite the respiratory center, causing a person to breathe rapidly and deeplyThis
increases expiration of carbon dioxide and, therefore,
removes excess carbon dioxide from the blood and
tissue fluids. This process continues until the concentration returns to normal.
It is a rapidly acting control mechanism that regulates arterial blood pressure and responds to stretch
Baroreceptor system
Where are baroreceptors located?
walls of the bifurcation region of the carotid arteries in the neck, and in the arch of the aorta in the thorax
What are baroreceptors?
nerve receptors stimulated by stretch of the arterial wall
What stimulates the baroreceptors?
stretch of the arterial wall
How does the baroreceptor system work?
When the arterial pressure rises too high, the baroreceptors send barrages of nerve impulses to the medulla of the brain. Here these impulses inhibit the vasomotor center, which in turn decreases the number of impulses transmitted from the vasomotor center through the sympathetic nervous system to the heart and blood vessels. Lack of these impulses causes diminished pumping activity by the heart and alsodilation of the peripheral blood vessels, allowing
increased blood flow through the vessels. Both of these
effects decrease the arterial pressure back toward
normal.