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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
define entreprenur
a person willing to take business risks in order to make a profit
define water frame
a machine invented by Sir Richard Arkwright and powered by water that was used for spinning cotton
define factory system
a method of production where employees come to a central location to work
What did John McAdam do?
He was hired for Turnpike Trust Company and helped develop new ways of building roads. He built roads the were well drained and had hard surfaces. This meant that they lasted longer and were less likley to become rutted
define Information Revolution
a third major revolution in our history (after the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions) based on the multiplication of new knowledge and use of computers for processing information.
define gleaning rights
rights held by common people in Britain, which allowed then to gather leftover grain and wood from the lord's land
define capital
the money which is used to finance a business venture
define duty
a toll or tax charged by a government on goods which are imported or exported
define cottage industry
a method of industrial organization which was used before the Industrial Revolution. Work was carried on in the home or cottage of the worker rather than in a factory
What was the Agricultral Revolution?
a period about 10 000 years ago when people in the Middle East began to meet their basic needs by domesticating plants and animals rather than by hunting and gathering methods
What did Henry Cort do?
He developed puddling and rolling processes to produce stronger, nore malleable, wrought iron
Who is Samuel Crompton and what did he do?
He was an inventor which made a machine that combined the best aspects of the spinning jenny and the water frame. This machine was calle a "mule". He could not afford a patent for his invention, but he was given some money.
What did the Duke of Bridgewater do?
He built early canals from
his estate at Worsley to Manchester and from Manchester to Runcorn on the English coast near Liverpool
define public company
a company whose shares can be owned and freely traded by the general public
What did John Wilkinson ( an English iron master) do?
In 1775 he successfully used a steam engine to blow air into a furnace while a a pot, pan or cannon was being moulded
What was the Industrial Revolution?
a period of social and economic change when socities switched from hand power to machine power for the production of goods. The Industraial Revolution occured in England in the late 1700s, and then spread to the United States and other countries
define domesticating
taming wild animals for livestock farming and cultivating wild plants for agriculture
define steam power
the production of useful power by burning hydrocarbons to create steam pressure. After water power, this was teh second source of inanimate power used in the Industrial Revolution.
define quality of life
a measure of economic, social, and aesthetic wellbeinf of a country's people
define nomadic
the lifestyles of tribes of people that wander the land seeking pasture and water for their flocks
define smelting
the process of separating iron metal from the rock ore
define rolling
a term used to describe a common method of flattening out steel after it has been smelted


define cast iron
a brittle form of iron made by pouring the molten metal into moulds
Who were John Kay and James Hagreaves and what did they do?
They were 2 inventors who made important changes to the textile industry. Kay invented a spinning machine (which marked the begining of the Industrial Revolution. Hargreaves tried to patent a invention similar to a spinning machine but failed, and died in 1778 a poor man.
What did Abraham Darby do?
In 1709 he discovered how to use coke (a purified form of coal) to smelt iron ore
What are the Enclosure Acts?
a series of Acts of Parliment passed over a number of centuries in Birtain. They were designed to consolidate farmlands in order to increase the size of fields and improve the efficiency of farming.
define share
a unit of ownership in a company that has a certain value
define puddling
the process of stirring molten iron in a furnace so as to turn it into wrought iron
define division of labour
the division of manufacturing activies into a number of small steps. This was an important step in the development of mass production techniques.
Who were Charles Townshed and Jethro Tull and what did they do?
The were 2 rich farmers who were willing to try new ideas. Townshed introduced a new system of crop rotation, and Tull developed a seed planting machine
Who was James Watt and what did he do?
He was a Scottish engineer who worked for 4 years to design the potential steam engine. He patented his design in 1769.
define wrought iron
a malleable form of iron which has had the non-metallic impurities removed and has then been rolled or forged
define patent
a document from the government granting an individual, often the inventor, the exclusive right to manufacture, sell, or profit from a new product
define broadcasting
a method of planting seeds which in vovles scattering then by hand