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39 Cards in this Set

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The basic unit of structure and function in living things.
cell
An instrument that makes small objects look larger.
microscope
A light microscope that has more than one lens.
compound microscope
A widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things.
cell theory
The ability to make things look larger than they are.
magnification
A curved lens in which the center is thicker than the edges.
convex lens
The ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object.
resolution
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.
organelle
A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
cell wall
A cell structure that forms the outside boundary of a cell and that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
cell membrane
A cell structure that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct all the cell's activities and that contain information that determines the cell's characteristics;also, the central core of an atom which contains protons and usually neutrons.
nucleus
Material in cells that contains DNA and carries genetic information.
chromatin
The region between the cell membrane and the nucleus in which cell structures are found; in organisms without a nucleus, the region located inside the cell membrane.
cytoplasm
Rod-shaped cell structures that produce most of the energy needed to carry out the cell's functions.
mitochondrion
A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
endoplasmic
reticulum
A small grainlike structure in the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made.
ribosome
A structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them,
and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
Golgi body
A structure in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and uses it to produce food.
chloroplast
A water filled sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area.
vacuole
A small round cell structure that contains chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones.
lysosome
element
A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means.
atom
The smallest unit of an element
compound
A substance made of two or more elements chemically combined.
molecule
The smallest unit of most compounds
organic compound
A compound that contains carbon
inorganic compound
A compound that does not contain carbon
carbohydrate
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as sugars and starches, that are made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, they are a major source of energy and provide the raw materials to make parts of cells.
protein
Nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; they are needed for tissue growth and repair and play a part in chemical reactions within the cells, also large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen. nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur, also polymers of amino acid.
amino acid
small molecules that are linked together chemically to form large molecules; also 20 kinds of organic compounds that are monomers of proteins.
enzyme
A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
nucleic acid
A very large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen. hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus that contains instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life; examples are DNA and RNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring
RNA
Ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins.
selectively permeable
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot.
lipid
An energy-rich organic compound made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and; fats, oils, waxes, and cholesterol are lipids.
diffusion
The process by which molecules move from an area in which they are highly concentrated to an area in which they are less concentrated
osmosis
The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
passive transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
active transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy