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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"a cutting open" is the study of internal and external structures of the body and the physical relationships among body parts.
Study of how living organisms perform their vital functions. All physiological functions are performed by specfic structures.
Cell physiology
study of the function of cells, is the cornerstone of human physiology.
Special physiology
study of the physiology of specific organs
Systemic physiology
includes all aspects of the functioning or specfic organ systems.
Pathological physiology
study of the effects of diseases on organ or system functions.
Gross anatomy/macroscopic anatomy
involves the examination of relatively large structures and features usually visible with the unaided eye.
Regional anatomy
focuses on the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body, such as the head,neck,or trunk.
Systemic anatomy
study of the structure of organ system which are groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner
Organ systems
are groups of organs that function together in a coordinated manner
Developmental antomy
describes the changes in form that occur between conception and physical maturity.
study of structural changes during the first two months of development
Microscopic Anatomy
deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification
analysis of the internal structure of indivdual cells
smallest living units in the human body
Study/examination of tissues
groups of specialized cells and cell product that work together to perform specific functions
Tissues combine to form organs
Human Physiology
study of the functions of the human body
Organ system
The human body is made up of several organ systems that work together as one unit. There are ten major organ systems of the body. Some of these systems include the:

circulatory system
digestive system
nervous system
reproductive system
existence of a stable internal environment. To survive, every organism must maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is absolutely vital to an organism; failure to maintain homeostasis soon leads to illness or even death
Autoregulation (intrinsic regulation)
occurs when a cell, a tissue, and organ, or and organ system adjusts its activities automatically in response to some environmental change.
Extrinsic regulation
results from the activities of the nervous system or endrocrine system, two organ systems that control or adjust the activities of many other systems simultaneously.
a sensor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change, or stimulus
Control Center (Integration center)
receives and processes the information supplied by the receptor and which sends out commands
cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center and whose activity either opposes or enhances stimulus.
Negative feedback
corrective mechanism involving an action that directly opposes a variation from normal limits.
Positive feedback
iniitial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions, rather than opposing it.
A malfunction of organs or organ system resulting from a failure of homeostatic regulation.
State of equilibrium
exists when opposing processes forces are in balance.
Anatomical position
When the body is in this position the hands are at the sides with the palms facing forward and the feet are together.
person lying down in the anatomical position (face up)
person lying down in the anatomical position (face down)
Abdominopelvic quadrants
One of four divisions of the anterior abdominal surface.
Right Upper Quadrant; Right Lower Quadrant; Left Upper Quadrant; Left Lower Quadrant
Abdominopelvic Regions
One of nine divisions of the anterior abdominal surface.
First Row/ Right Hypochondria region Epigastric region, Left Hypochondriac region;
Second Row/ Right lumbar region,Umbilical region, Left lumbar region;
Third Row/ Right Inguinal Region, Hypogastric,Left inguinal region
Sectional planes
Any slice through a three-dimensional object
transverse plane
dividing body into superior and inferior portions
CT, CAT(computerized axial tomography)
An imaging technique that uses Xrays to reconstruct the body's three-dimensional structure.
DSA (digital subtraction angiography)
A technique used to monitor blood flow through specific organs, such as the brain, heart, lungs, or kidneys. Xrays are taken before and after a radiopaque dye is administered,and a computer"subtracts" details common to both images. The result is a high contrast image showing the distribution of the dye
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
An imaging technique that employs a magnetic field and radio waves to portray subtle structural differences
PET scan(positron emission tomography)
An imaging technique that shows the chemical functioning, as well as the structure of an organ
A physician who specializes in performing and analyzing radiological procedures
spiral- CT
A method of processing computerized tomography data to provide rapid, three-dimensional images of internal organs
An imaging technique that uses brief bursts of high-frequency sound waves reflected by internal structures.
High-energy radiation that can penetrate living tissues
Pericardial cavity
small chamber that surrounds the heart
Surface anatomy
study of general form and superficial markings
Clinical Anatomy
includes a number of subspecialties important in clinical practice
Medical Anatomy
Anatomical features that change during illness
Radiographic anatomy
anatomical structures seen using specific imaging techniques
Surgical anatomy
anatomical landmarks important in surgery
Ventral - belly front of the body
Body cavities
Vital organs suspended in internal chambers (protect and permit change)
Ventral body cavity (coelom)
appears early in embryological development
flat muscular sheet divides ventral body into a superior thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
a delicate layer called serous membrane lines walls of these internal cavities and covers surfaces of enclosed viscera
pleural cavities
thoracic cavity is subdivided into left and right that contain lungs
central tissue that divides thoracic cavity into two pleural cavities
pelvic cavity
inferior subdivision of the abdominopelvic cavity
frontal plane (coronal plane)
Parallel to the long axis of the body. Frontal plane extends side to side, dividing body into anterior and inferior portions
parasagittal section
cut parallel to mid-sagittal line
midsagittal section (median section)
cut that passes along the midline and divides the body into left and right halves
sagittal plane
extends from front to back dividing body into left and right portions
11 Organ systems
Reproductive Systems
Important concept of function
All specific functions are performed by specific structures
Abdominal cavity
abdominalopelvic cavity extends from the diaphragm to the pelvis. It is sub-divided into a superior abdominal cavity.