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22 Cards in this Set

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How is CT helped by image reconstuction?
CT overcomes limitations in detail and clarity by using image reconstruction
When was the idea of image reconstruction first introduced?
and By whom?
1917

mathematician Radon
Definition of Image Reconstruction.
Image Reconstruction from projections is the process of producing an image of a two dimensional distribution from estimates of its line integrals along a finite number of lines of known locations.
Who applied reconstruction techniques to produce the first clinically useful CT scanner for brain imaging?
and In what year?
Hounsfield

1967
What is Emission CT?
It is where the radiation source is inside the patient.
(Ex. nuclear medicine)
What is Transmission CT?
It is where the radiation source is outside the patient.
(Ex. Xray imaging)
What 3 steps are involved in the formation of CT images by a CT scanner?
1. Data Acquisition
2. Image Reconstruction
3. Image display, Manipulation, Recording and Commuication
What is Data Acquisition?
Data Acquisition refers to the collection of xray transmission measuremnts from the patient.
What are Reconstuction Algorithms?
Reconstuction Algorithms are the special mathematical techniques used by the computer to recontruct the CT image.
What is the best device for the diplay of gray-scale imagery?
The Cathode Ray Tube
What does Communications refer to in CT?
Communications refer to the electronic transmission of text data and images from the CT scanner to other devices. (Ex. printers, workstations, throughout the facility)
How does the CT Scan work?
When xrays pass through the patient, they are attenuated and measured by the detectors. The detector converts the xray photons into electric/analog signals, which are converted in to digital (numeric) data. With the digital data the computer reconstructs the image.
Who developed the first whole body CT scanner?
and In what year?
Robert Ledley

1974
What is an Electron Beam CT?
Electron Beam CT was first used for cardiac imaging in the mid-1980's. It has no moving parts. It is capable of acquiring multislice images very rapidly.
What are the terms used to describe a volume of tissue being scanned by moving the patient continuously through the gantry and where the detectors rotate continuously.
Spiral and Helical CT
What is meant by "Multislice CT Scanner"?
Multislice scanning refers to the use of multiple detectors to produce more than 2 slices per rotation.
What does the term "efficacy" refer to?
and What are the terms that mean the same?
Efficacy indicates that the therapeutic effect of a given intervention (ex. intake of a medicine, an operation, or a public health measure) is acceptable.

Efficacy is synonymous with effectiveness, efficiency and performance
What are used to measure radiation dose?
Ionization chambers
Thermoluminescent dosimeters
What are Dose descriptors?
Dose descriptors included the single scan dose profile, multiple scan dose profle, CT dose index, multiple scan average dose, and isodose curves.
What are the advantages of CT Fluoroscopy?
1. Fast continuous scanning
2. Fast image reconstruction
3. Continuous image display
3D imaging uses large volumes of digital data. What 2 classes of techiques are available for 3D transformation?
Surface and Volume-based techniques
What are the 4 essential elements to produce a quality CT Angio?
1. Patient Prep
2. Selection of acquisition parameers
3. Contrast injection
4. Post-processing techniques