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33 Cards in this Set

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What was Bacon's Rebellion?
A rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy, well-educated young Englishman who had immigrated to Virginia in 1674 and established a plantation. This rebellion left hundreds of Indians dead, dozens of plantations looted, and Jamestown, Virginia's capital, burned.
What was the Enlightenment?
A movement that combined confidence in human reason with skepticism toward beliefs not founded on science or strict logic. Enlightenment followers trusted reason more than they trusted common people.
What was King Philip's War?
A conflict that arose between the Wampanoags led by their leader Metacom, or "King Philip", and the English when several Wampanoags were shot while burglarizing a farmhouse which esclating into more violence. Metacom's forces, unlike the Indians in the Pequot War, were as well armed as the colonists. The Indians attacked 52 of New England's 90 towns, burned 1,200 houses, slaughtered 8,000 head of cattle, and killed 60 colonists.
What was the Glorious Revolution?
English politicians were disgusted at the idea of having of a Catholic monarchy so they asked Mary and her husband William of Orange to step in a take charge.William and Mary led a small army to England and most royal troops surrendered to them and James II fled to France. This became known as the Glorious Revolution.
What was the Great Awakening?
An outpouring of passionate Christian revivalism swept all of British North America in the 1740s. The Great Awakening cut across lines of class, status, and education.
What were the Navigation Acts?
A series of laws passed by Parliament that were designed to benefit England's commercial interest.
What was King William's and Queen Anne's War?
King William's War was the first struggle to embroil the colonies in European rivalries.Queen Anne's War began when England fought France and Spain in the War of the Spanish succession.
What was the Mayflower Compact?
A document signed by all adult males that landed on Plymoth Bay.
What was the Spanish Armada?
A huge invasion fleet sent into the English Channel by Spain's Phillip II.
Who was Benjamin Franklin?
An Anglo-American intellectual and self-taught scientist who drew his inspiration from Enlightenment ideals. He embodied the Enlightenment more than any other American. He began a club called Junto and published Poor Richard's Almanck which made him famous. By age 43, he had acquired enough money to retire and he then devoted himself to science and community service.
Who was John Rolfe?
An Englishman who spent several years perfecting a salable variety of tobacco and began planting it in Virginia.
Who was Anne Hutchinson?
A woman who extended Cotton's main point-that the saints must be free from interference by the nonelect-into a broad attack on clerical authority. Dissatisfied with her own minister, she charge that he was not among the elect, and asserted that the saints in his congregation could ignore his views. She eventually alleged that all the colony's ministers except John Cotton and her brother-in-law John Wheelwright had not been saved and so lacked authority over saints like herself. Critics charged that her beliefs would delude individuals into imagining that they were accountable to no one but themselves.
What were the Salem Witchcraft Trials?
A paranoia that overtook the comunity of Salem when several Salem Village girls claimed that they were victims of withcraft. They claimed that the witches used maleficum (the devil's supernatural power of evil) to torment neighbors and others causing illness, destroying property, or inhabiting or "posessing" their victims' bodies and minds. By April 1692 the girls had denounced two wealthy farm wives long considered saints in the local church, and they had identified the village's former minister as a wizard. The number of persons facing trial multiplied quickly.Fifty persons saved themselves by confessing. Twenty others would neither disgrace their own name nor betray the guiltless were put to death.
Who were the Pilgrims?
People who landed at Plymouth Bay and established the colony of Plymouth Plantation.
Who were the Puritans?
People from a small Calvinist movement thatd demanded a wholesale "purification" of the Church of England from "popish abuses".
Who was Roger Williams?
One of the most respected and popular figures in Massachusetts. He believed that civil government should remain absolutely uninvolved with religious matters. He opposed any kind of compulsory church service or interference with private religious beliefs because he feared that the stae would corrupt the church and its saints.The political authorities declared Williams's opinions subversive and banished him in 1635.
Who was William Penn?
A Quaker who wanted to launch a "holy experiment" based on teachings of the radical English preacher George Fox. The colony Pennsylvania was also named after him. He wanted Pennsylvania to offer freedom not only to live diligently but also to make laws according to their ideals. He hated intolerance and arbitary government.Penn's ideal colony soon bogged down to human bickering. Having put a fortune into Pennsylvania, Penn spent some of his later months in debtors prison and died in debt.
Who was Christopher Columbus?
An Italian man who believed that he had reached Asia.
Who was Ferdinand Magellan?
A Portuguese man who began a voyage around the world by way of the Magellan Straits at South America's southern tip.
Who was Martin Luther?
A German friar who attacked the practice of corruption in the church in the 95 thesis.
What was the significance of King William and King Anne's War?
King William's War took the form of cruel but inconclusive border raids against civilians on both sides, carried out by English and French troops and their Indian allies.Queen Anne's War taught Anglo-Americans painful lessons about their miltary weakness. These wars made English crowns appreciate the British and made them even more loyal to the crown.
What was the significance of the Navigation Acts?
A series of laws passed by Parliament that were designed to benefit England's commercial interest.
What was the significance of the Great Awakening?
The Great Awakening represented an unleashing of anxiety and longing among ordinary people living in a world of oral culture-anxiety about sin, and longing for salvation. The Great Awakening was America's first revivalism. It also started the decline in the influence of the Quakers, Anglicans, and Congregationalists, stimulated the founding of new colleges, went beyond the ranks of white society to draw many African-Americans and Native Americans to Protestantism for the first time, and also gave added prominence to women in the colonial region. The Great Awakening laid some of the groundwork for political revolutionaries a generation later, who would contend that royal government in America had grown corrupt and unworthy of obedience.
What was the significance of Roger Williams?
Roger Williams purchased Providence from the Narragansett Indians. In 1647 the group of settlements near Providence on Narragansett Bay joined to form Rhode Island colony. True to Williams's ideals, Rhode island was the only New England colony to practice religious toleration. Growing slowly, the colony's four towns had eight hundred settlers by 1650.
What was the significance of the Salem Witchcraft Trials?
The Salem Witchcraft Trials refelected profound anxieties over social change in New England. The underlying causes for this tension were evident in the antagonism of Salem Village's communally oriented farmers toward the competitive, individualistic, and impersonal way of life represented by Salem Town. In this clash of values, the rural villagers assumed the symbolic role of purging their city upon a hill of its commercial witches, only to leave the landscape desecrated by their gallows.
What was the significance of John Rolfe?
John Rolfe's product commanded high prices and Virginia exported large amounts of the crop.Thereafter the Virginia Company poured supplies and settlers into the colony.
What was the significance of Mayflower Compact?
The Mayflower Compact constituted all the adult males in the group as a "civil body politic", or a civil government, under James I's sovereignty and established the colony of Plymouth Plantation.
What was the significance of the Spanish Armada?
England's famous victory over the Spanish Armada perserved England's independence and demonstrated that the kingdom could repel attacks though it had little offensive military might.
What was the significance of Ferdinand Magellan?
Ferninand Magellan crossed the Pacific and Philippines, only to die fighting with the natives. His crew were the first people to have sailed around the world.
What was the significance of the Puritans?
Purtanism was the first religion in England that inly saints could join. Puritans practiced self-disclipine and righteousness which appealed to certain elements of English society.
What was the significance of the Pilgrims?
Pilgrims would help inspire the later American vision of sturdy, self-reliant, God-fearing folk crossing the Atlantic to govern themselves freely and they foreshadowed the methods that later generations of European-Americans would use to gain mastery over Indians.
What was the significance of Christopher Columbus?
Christopher Columbus discovered the New World. His discovery led Isabella and John II to sign the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, which divided all future discoveries between Castille and Portugal.Columbus was also America's first slave trader and the first of the Spanish conquerors.
What was the significance of Martin Luther?
Luther's revolt began the Protestant Reformation, which changed Christianity forever.