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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Conciousness
the awareness of oneself and the enviroment
Biological rhythm
a periodic, more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system; it may or may not have psychological implications
Endogenous
generated from within rather than by external cues
Circadian rhythm
a bio rhythm with a period of about 24 hours; from the Latin circa "about" and dies "a day"
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
an area of the brain containing a biological clock that governs circadian rhythms
melatonin
a hormone secreted by the pineal gland; it is involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. Too much makes you feel sleepy and depressed.
internal desynchonization
a state in which biological rhythms are not in phase wit one another
SAD
a controversial disorder in which a person experiences depression during the winter and improvement of mood in spring
sleep apnea
a disorder in which breathing briefly stops during sleep, causing the person to choke and gasp, and momentarily awaken
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder involving sudden and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepiness or actual sleep
REM
rapid eye movement sleep; sleep periods characteized by eye movement, loss of muscle tone and dreaming
The functioning of the biological clock governing circadian rhythms is affected by the hormone?
melatonin
Jet lag occurs because of
internal desynchronazion
For most women, the days before menstruation are reliably associated with
none of these- depression, irratability, elation, creativity
A researcher tells male participants in a study that testosterone usually peaks in the morning and that i probably causes hostility. She then asks them to fill out a "Hypertestosterone sysndrome hostility survey" in the morning and again in the PM. Based on menstrual-cycle findings, what results migh she get? How could she improve the study?
Because of the expectations that the men now have aobut testosterone, they may be biased to report more hostility in the morning. it would be better to keep them in the dark about the hypothesis and to measure their actual hormone levls atdiffernet pints in the day, because individuals vary in their bio rythms.
Brain-wave patterns during sleep
Awake - small rapid
Stage 1- small irregular
Stage 2- sleep spindles
Stage 3- delta waves appear
Stage 4- mostly delta
REM - rapid, somewhat irregular
REM periods
active brain but inactive muscles
Alpha
relaxed but awake
Stage 4 sleep
delta waves and talking in one's sleep
Stage 1 sleep
active brain but inactive muscles
Sleep in necessary for
mental functioning but not physical functioning
Most people can get fine with six hours of sleep at night
false
lucid dream
a dream in which the dreamer is aware of dreaming
Dream theories (4)
1 dreams as uncouncious wishes

2 dreams as reflections of current concerns

3 Dreams as by-product of mental housekeeping

4 dreams of interpreted brain activity
activation-synthesis theory
the theory that dreaming results from the cortical synthesis and intepretation of neural signals triggered by activity in the lower part of the brain

1. spontaneous firing of neurons in the pons
2. cerebral cortex synthesizes signals, tries to interpret them (I'm running in through the woods)
in his dream Andy is an infant crawling through a dark tunnel looking for something he has lost. Which type of theory if:

Andy recently misplaced a valuable watch but eventually found it?
the mental-housekeeping (info processing approach) The dreamer is processing info about a recent experience
in his dream Andy is an infant crawling through a dark tunnel looking for something he has lost. Which type of theory if:

while Andy was sleeping, neurons in his pons that would ordinarily stimulate parts of the brain involved leg-muscle movement were active?
the activation-synthesis theory
in his dream Andy is an infant crawling through a dark tunnel looking for something he has lost. Which type of theory if:

Andy has repressed an early sexual attraction to his mother; the tunnel symbolizes her vagina
psychoanalytic theory
in his dream Andy is an infant crawling through a dark tunnel looking for something he has lost. Which type of theory if:

Andy has broken up with his lover and is working through emotional loss
the problem-focus approach
Hypnosis
a procedure in which the pactitioner suggests changes int he senstions, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behavior of the subject
dissociation
a split in sonsciousness in which one part of the mind operates independently of others

1. hypnotist induces hypnotic state
2. split between hidden observer or executive control system and rest of mind
3. Person responds to suggestions (I'm 4 yrs old)
sociocognitive approach
holds the effects of hypnosis result from an interaction between the social influence of the hypnotists (the socio part) and the abilities, beliefs, and expectations of the subject (the cognitive part)

1. social influence of hypnotist (you're gong back in time)
2. plus person's own cognitions (I believe in age regression)
3. = person conforms to suggestions (I'm 4 yrs old)
T or F

A hypnotized person is usually aware of what is going on and remembers the experience later
True
T or F

Hypnosis gives us special powers that we do not ordinarily have
False
Hypnosis reduces errors in memory
false
hypnotized people play no acive part in their behavior and thoughts
false
according to hilgard, hypnosis is a sate of cosciousness involving a "hidden observer"
true
sociocognitive theorists view hypnosis as mere faking a conscious playacting
false
psychoactive drug
a drug capable of influencing perception, mood, cognition, or behavior
stimulants
drugs that speed up activity in the central nervous system

e.g. cocaine, nicotine, amphetamines, caffeine
depressants
drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system

e.g. alcohol, tranquilizers
opiates
drugs, deived from the opium poppy, that relieve pain and commonly produce euphoria

e.g. opium, heroin, morphine
psychedelic drugs
conciousness-altering drugs that produce hallucinations, change thought processes, or disrupt the normal perception of the time and space

e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline
tolerance
increased resistance to a drug's effects accompanying continued use
withdrawal symptoms
physical and psychological symptoms that occur when someone addicted to a drug stops takingn it
an illegal stimulant
cocaine, also amphetamines
two drugs that interfere with the formation of new long-term memories
marijuana, alchol
three types of depressant drugs
tranquilzers, alcohol, barbiturates
a legal recreational druge that acts as a depressant on the central nervous system
alchohol
four factors that influence a person's psychological reactions to a drug
1. physical condition
2. prior experience with the drug
3. mental set
4. enviromental setting