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193 Cards in this Set

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The part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled voluntarily.
autonomic nervous system
The first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens.
cecum
The principal artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. It supplies blood to the lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, and legs. It can be palpated in the groin area.
femoral artery
An angle that is formed by the junction of the spine and the tenth rib.
costovertebral angle
An imaginary vertical line drawn through the middle portion of the clavicle and parallel to the midline.
midclavicular line
The bottom of the foot.
plantar
The part of the body, or any body part, nearer to the feet.
inferior
The controlling organ of the body and center of consciousness; functions include perception, control of reactions to the environment, emotional responses, and judgment.
brain
The muscles on either side of the neck that allow movement of the head.
sternocleidomastoid muscles
A sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores urine.
urinary bladder
The processing of food that nourishes the individual cells of the body.
digestion
Ducts that convey bile between the liver and the intestine.
bile ducts
The lining of body cavities and passages that communicate directly or indirectly with the environment outside the body.
mucous membranes
A small gland that surrounds the male urethra where it emerges from the urinary bladder; it secretes a fluid that is part of the ejaculatory fluid.
prostate gland
The upper quarter of the sternum.
manubrium
The glands that secrete sweat.
sweat glands
The depression on the lateral pelvis where its three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snugly.
acetabulum
The major artery in the forearm; it is palpable at the wrist on the thumb side.
radial artery
The bone on the small finger side of the forearm; most important for elbow function.
ulna
The position of reference in which the patient stands facing you, arms at the side, with the palms of the hands forward.
anatomic position
The major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs; it carries oxygen-poor blood.
pulmonary artery
A prominent bony mass at the base of the skull behind the ear.
mastoid process
Nerves in the brain and spinal cord that connect the motor and sensory nerves.
connecting nerves
Muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint; striated, or voluntary, muscle.
skeletal muscle
Motion of a limb toward the midline.
adduction
All the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of the upper and lower airways and their component parts.
respiratory system
The position in which the body is supine with the head lower than the feet.
Trendelenburg's position
The principal artery leaving the left side of the heart and carrying freshly oxygenated blood to the body.
aorta
The portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck.
cervical spine
The joint where the mandible meets with the temporal bone of the cranium just in front of each ear
temporomandibular joint
A thin, leaf-shaped valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents food or liquid from entering.
epiglottis
The chest cavity that contains the heart, lungs, esophagus, and great vessels (the aorta and the two venae cavae).
thorax
The brain and spinal cord.
central nervous system (CNS)
Glands that produce an oily substance called sebum, which discharges along the shafts of the hairs.
sebaceous glands
The place where two bones come into contact.
joint (articulation)
The 33 bones that make up the spinal column.
vertebrae
Closer to or on the skin.
superficial
The serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space.
pleura
The tip or the topmost portion of a structure.
apex (plural: apices)
A flat, solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach; it is a major source of digestive enzymes and produces the hormone insulin.
pancreas
The major artery that supplies blood to the head and brain.
carotid artery
The spermatic duct of the testicles; also called vas deferens.
vasa deferentia (vas deferens)
Nonstriated, involuntary muscle; it constitutes the bulk of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in nearly every organ to regulate automatic activity.
smooth muscle
The fine end-divisions of the arterial system that allow contact between cells of the body tissues and the plasma and red blood cells.
capillary vessels
Slow, gasping respiration, sometimes seen in dying patients.
agonal respirations
The proximal portion of the upper extremity, made up of the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus.
shoulder girdle
Behind the abdominal cavity.
retroperitoneal
The body cavity that contains the major organs of digestion and excretion.
abdomen
The breastbone.
sternum
The eleventh and twelfth ribs, which do not attach to the sternum through the costal arch.
floating ribs
A hollow muscular organ that receives blood from the veins and propels it into the arteries.
heart
The firm prominence in the upper part of the larynx formed by the thyroid cartilage. It is more prominent in men than in women.
Adam's apple
An imaginary vertical line drawn through the middle of the axilla (armpit), parallel to the midline.
midaxillary line
A band of the fibrous tissue that connects bones to bones. It supports and strengthens a joint.
ligament
Motion of a limb away from the midline.
abduction
The lowermost end of the colon.
rectum
A firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx; the Adam's apple.
thyroid cartilage
A joint that allows internal and external rotation as well as bending.
ball-and-socket joint
A sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transports cellular waste material to the organs of excretion.
plasma
The bony prominences of the pelvis (ilium) at the front on each side of the lower abdomen just below the plane of the umbilicus.
anterior superior iliac spines
The narrow, cartilaginous lower tip of the sternum.
xiphoid process
The heart muscle.
myocardium
The area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respirations.
brain stem
The superficial landmarks of the body that serve as guides to the structures that lie beneath them.
topographic anatomy
The position in which the patient is sitting up with the knees bent.
Fowler's position
The artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals.
dorsalis pedis artery
The part of the body, or any body part, nearer to the head.
superior
The framework that gives us our recognizable form; also designed to allow motion of the body and protection of vital organs.
skeleton
A rigid, ring-shaped structure that completely encircles the larynx at the top of the trachea.
cricoid cartilage
The air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
alveoli
The part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These peripheral nerves may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves.
peripheral nervous system
Tissue, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body.
subcutaneous tissue
A tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea.
oropharynx
The complex arrangement of connected tubes, including the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, that moves blood, oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and cellular waste throughout the body.
circulatory system
A ridge on the sternum that lies at the level where the second rib is attached to the sternum; provides a constant and reliable bony landmark on the anterior chest wall.
angle of Louis
The tough, fibrous ligament that stretches between the lateral edge of the pubic symphysis and the anterior superior iliac spine.
inguinal ligament
The part of the nervous system that regulates our voluntary activities, such as walking, talking, and writing.
somatic nervous system
Long, slender tube that extends from the uterus to the region of the ovary on the same side, and through which the ovum passes from ovary to uterus.
fallopian tube
The joint between the wrist and the metacarpal bones; the thumb joint.
carpometacarpal joint
The four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
pulmonary veins
The 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae. One pair of ribs is attached to each of the thoracic vertebrae.
thoracic spine
The collarbone; it is lateral to the sternum and medial to the scapula.
clavicle
The front surface of the body; the side facing you in the standard anatomic position.
anterior
The small organs in the skin that produce hair.
hair follicles
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck, and chest into the heart.
superior vena cava
The smallest branch of an artery leading to the vast network of capillaries.
arteriole
A hard bony prominence that is found in the midline in the lowermost portion of the abdomen.
pubic symphysis
The nerves that carry sensations of touch, taste, heat, cold, pain, or other modalities from the body to the central nervous system.
sensory nerves
Joints that can bend and straighten but cannot rotate; they restrict motion to one plane.
hinge joints
Further inside the body and away from the skin.
deep
The quadrangular bones of the cheek, articulating with the frontal bone, the maxillae, the zygomatic processes of the temporal bone, and the great wings of the sphenoid bone.
zygomas
A thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilages that make up the larynx.
cricothyroid membrane
The pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them.
blood pressure (BP)
The lateral portions on each side of the cranium.
temporal regions
The glands that produce saliva to keep the mouth and pharynx moist.
salivary glands
The major vessel in the upper extremity that supplies blood to the arm.
brachial artery
The bones and voluntary muscles of the body.
musculoskeletal system
The shoulder blade.
scapula
A small tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen.
appendix
The artery just posterior to the medial malleolus; supplies blood to the foot.
posterior tibial artery
The position that has the head and torso (trunk) supine and the lower extremities elevated 6" to 12". This helps to increase blood flow to the brain; also referred to as the modified Trendelenburg's position.
shock position
Muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will; skeletal, or striated, muscle.
voluntary muscle
The wave-like contraction of smooth muscle by which the ureters or other tubular organs propel their contents.
peristalsis
Storage sacs for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate.
seminal vesicles
One of the three major subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "little brain"; coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly body movements.
cerebellum
A small, hollow tube that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
ureter
The proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum to form the hip joint.
femoral head
The largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the "gray matter"; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions, and personality.
cerebrum
The serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity, completely enclosing a potential space known as the pleural space.
pleural space
A bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh, just below the hip joint.
greater trochanter
The position in which the body is lying face down.
prone position
Two retroperitoneal organs that excrete the end products of metabolism as urine and regulate the body's salt and water content.
kidneys
A muscular dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. Contraction of the diaphragm (and the chest wall muscles) brings air into the lungs. Relaxation allows air to be expelled from the lungs.
diaphragm
The areas between the temporal and occiput regions of the cranium.
parietal regions
The upper jawbones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate, and lodge the upper teeth.
maxillae
Backup system to control respirations when oxygen levels fall.
hypoxic drive
One of two (right and left) lower chambers of the heart. The left ventricle receives blood from the left atrium (upper chamber) and delivers blood to the aorta. The right ventricle receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary arter
ventricle
The way to describe the sections of the abdominal cavity. Imagine two lines intersecting at the umbilicus dividing the abdomen into four equal areas.
quadrants
The system that controls virtually all activities of the body, both voluntary and involuntary.
nervous system
A bridge of cartilage that connects the ends of the sixth through tenth ribs with the lower portion of the sternum.
costal arch
Vertebrae of the lumbar spine.
lumbar vertebrae
Structures that are closer to the trunk.
proximal
The eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma.
orbit
The chest or rib cage.
thoracic cage
A continuous and painful erection of the penis caused by certain spinal injuries and some diseases.
priapism
The complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.
endocrine system
The portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
small intestine
The large muscle that covers the front of the humerus.
biceps
The canal that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body.
urethra
A collapsible tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; contractions of the muscle in the wall of the esophagus propel food and liquids through it to the stomach.
esophagus
Muscle that continues to contract, rhythmically, regardless of the conscious will of the individual.
involuntary muscle
The supporting bone of the upper arm that joins with the scapula (glenoid) to form the shoulder joint and with the ulna and radius to form the elbow joint.
humerus
A sac on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct.
gallbladder
The area of the head above the ears and eyes; the skull. The cranium contains the brain.
cranium
Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body.
motor nerves
The last three or four vertebrae of the spine; the tailbone.
coccyx
One of two (right and left) upper chambers of the heart. The right atrium receives blood from the vena cava and delivers it to the right ventricle. The left atrium receives blood from pulmonary veins and delivers it to the left ventricle.
atrium
Blood cells that play a role in the body's immune defense mechanisms against infection; also called leukocytes.
white blood cells
The thick skin covering the cranium, which usually bears hair.
scalp
The front region of the hand.
palmar
The lower part of the back, formed by the lowest five nonfused vertebrae; also called the dorsal spine.
lumbar spine
An imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and the umbilicus (navel) to the floor.
midline
To straighten.
extend
A body part or condition that appears on both sides of the midline.
bilateral
The inner layer of the skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels.
dermis
A male genital gland that contains specialized cells that produce hormones and sperm.
testicle
The organs that control the discharge of certain waste materials filtered from the blood and excreted as urine.
urinary system
Seminal fluid ejaculated from the penis and containing sperm.
semen
The anterior surface of the body.
ventral
An extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body. It lies inside of, and is protected by, the spinal canal.
spinal cord
Cells that carry oxygen to the body's tissues; also called erythrocytes.
red blood cells
The external, visible part of the ear.
pinna
The portion of the digestive tube that encircles the abdomen around the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, and the rectum.
large intestine
The thigh bone, which extends from the pelvis to the knee and is responsible for formation of the hip; the longest and largest bone in the body.
femur
The opaque, sticky secretion of the mucous membranes that lubricates the body openings.
mucus
The rim, or wing, of the pelvic bone.
iliac crest
A sheet or band of tough fibrous connective tissue; lies deep under the skin and forms an outer layer for the muscles.
fascia
Tiny, disk-shaped elements that are much smaller than the cells; they are essential in the initial formation of a blood clot, the mechanism that stops bleeding.
platelets
The part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or soft palate.
nasopharynx
The wave of pressure created as the heart contracts and forces blood out the left ventricle and into the major arteries.
pulse
The kneecap; a specialized bone that lies within the tendon of the quadriceps muscle.
patella
The fibrous sac with synovial lining that encloses a joint.
joint capsule
A cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.
renal pelvis
The larger of the two lower leg bones responsible for supporting the major weight-bearing surface of the knee and the ankle; the shinbone.
tibia
To bend.
flex
One of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and the abdominal organs into the heart.
inferior vena cava
Parts of the body that lie closer to the midline; also called inner structures.
medial
The male and female reproductive systems.
genital system
Parts of the body that lie farther from the midline. Also called outer structures.
lateral
Structures that are farther from the trunk or nearer to the free end of the extremity.
distal
The position in which the body is lying face up.
supine position
The wave of pressure that is created by the heart's contracting and forcing blood out the left ventricle and into the major arteries.
heart rate (pulse)
A muscular distensible tube that connects the uterus with the vulva (the external female genitalia); also called the birth canal.
vagina
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
pubis
The relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
diastole
The bone of the lower jaw.
mandible
The trunk without the head and limbs.
torso
The bone on the thumb side of the forearm; most important in wrist function.
radius
Muscle that has characteristic stripes, or striations, under the microscope; voluntary, or skeletal, muscle.
striated muscle
The muscle in the back of the upper arm.
triceps
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
ilium
The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart, especially that of the ventricles.
systole
One of the major arteries of the forearm; it can be palpated at the wrist on the ulnar side (at the base of the fifth finger).
ulnar artery
The posterior surface of the body, including the back of the hand.
dorsal
One of three bones (sacrum and two pelvic bones) that make up the pelvic ring; consists of five fused sacral vertebrae.
sacrum
The outer layer of skin, which is made up of cells that are sealed together to form a watertight protective covering for the body.
epidermis
A large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores sugar for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.
liver
The windpipe; the main trunk for air passing to and from the lungs.
trachea
The back surface of the body; the side away from you in the standard anatomical position.
posterior
One of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring.
ischium
The most posterior portion of the cranium.
occiput
A female gland that produces sex hormones and ova (eggs).
ovary
The circulation of blood within an organ or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells' current needs.
perfusion