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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
give 3 examples of extrusive rocks
obsidian, pumice, basalt
which extrusive rock is sometimes called volcanic glass
obsidian
define sedimentary rocks
layered rocks that form under the ocean
give 3 examples of metamorphic rocks
gneiss, marble, slate
define igneous rocks
all rocks formed from the cooling and hardening of magma "came from fire"
where do batholiths form
at the stony base of Earth's great mountains
give 3 examples of clastic rocks
conglomerates, sandstone, slate
define the rock cycle
the continous changing of rocks from ne kind to another over long periods of time
define magma
hot, molten rock deep inside the earth
what type of extrusive rock can float on water because of volcanic gas that is trapped inside
pumice
which type of rock is rich in fossils and usually formed in water
sedimentary
how are organic rocks formed
from remains of living things
define metamorphic rocks
rocks that have been changed due to tremendous heat, great pressure and chemical reaction
explain the steps a rock goes through to become a sedimentary rock
1. weathering and erosion breaks up rock & moves it
2. sediments are formed
3. pressure cements the sediment together in water
how are igneous rocks formed
from the cooling and hardening of magma
what 3 conditions cause rocks to change continuously?
1. weathering and erosion
2. high temperatures and pressures
3. melting
tell what type of rock are the following examples...igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary

GRANITE
SANDSTONE
ROCK SALT
SHALE
Granite - I
Sandstone - S
Rock Salt - S
Shale - S
Quartz
Coal
Obsidian
Marble
Slate
Quartz - m
coal - s
obsidian - i
marble - m
slate - m
conglomerate
gypsum
gabbro
pumice
basalt
conglom - s
gypsum - s
gabbro - i
pumic - i
basalt - i
What are petrified fossils
fossils in which MINERALS replace all or part an organism
What is a hollow area in sediment in the shape of an organism
mold
what is a copy of the shape of an organism
cast
what is an extremely thin coating of carbon on a rock
carbon film
what are trace fossils
eveidence of the ACTIVITIES of ancient organisms
the process by which all the different kinds of living things have changed over long periods of time is called
EVOLUTION
the type of rock that is made of hardened sediment is called
sedimentary rock durrr
a type of organism is ______ if it no longer exists and will never again live on Earth
extinct
what is the name of a scientiest who studies fossils
paleontolist
the preserved remains or traces of living things are called
fossils
a well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations is called
scientific theory
rocks that are compacted and cemented together to form a solid rock
sedimentary
rocks formed from magma
igneous
a geometrical structure formed by atoms
crystal
animals or plants preserved or imprinted in sedimentary rock
fossils
what you find when you scratch a mineral over an unglazed tile
color
rocks that have changed due to heat and pressure
metamorphic
what makes up all matter
atoms
rocks and minerals are considered to be among our greatest natural ____
resources
the process that forms sedimentary rock
lithification
formed by crystals and is inorganic
minerals
formed by two or more minerals
rock
not living
inorganic
what all igneous rocks come from
magma
what two forces help erode our earth
wind & water
what is another name for igneous rock
fire rocks
what is underground melted rock called
magma
igneous rock forms by magma that is trapped and cools ______ underground
slowly
igneous rock froms by igneous rocks that are formed when _______ erupt
volcanos
what forms when lava cools quickly - it can float on water
pumice
igneous rock formed beneath earth's surface when magma cools slowly is
granite
metamorphic rock was once either igneous or
sedimentary
what two things causes rock to change
pressure and heat
what metamorphic rock was first granite
gneiss
what two processes can change igenous and metamorphic rocks into sediments
erosion & deposition
what must happen to sediments before they become sedimentary rocks?
burial and cementing
solidifiaction means to harden and become solid. which rock type must experience the process of solidification
igneous
what two processes must a rock undergo before it can become an igneous rock
solidification and melting
what types of rock can be changed to a sedimentary rock
igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary
what types of rock can be change to a metamorphic rock
igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
the preserved remains or traces of living things are called
fossils
t or f
most fossils form when living things die and are buried by sediments
true
t or f
fossils are usually found in igneous rocks
false
the type of rock that is made of hardened sediment is
sedimentary rock
t or f
fossils can form when the remains of an organism decay
false
fossils in which minerals replace all or part of an organism are called
petrified fossils
t or f
petrified fossils can form when the minerals in water make a copy of the organism
true
t or f
a carbon film forms when minerals preserve the delicate parts of an organism
false
wich ones are trace fossils:
FOOTPRINTS
ANIMAL TRAILS
ANIMAL SHELLS
BURROWS
FOOTPRINTS
ANIMAL TRAILS
BURROWS
what can a paleontologist infer by looking at fossil footprints?
he can infer if the animal walked on two or four legs and if it lived alone or with others of its kind
what is relative age
the age of a rock compared to the ages of other rocks
what is absolute age
the number of years since the rock formed
3 types of sedimentary rocks
sandstone, gypsum, shale
3 types of metamorphic rock
marble, slate, quartz
3 types of igneous rock
pumic, granite, basalt
what are smaller groups of sedimentary rock
clastic, chemical, organic
what are 2 smaller groups of igneous rock
intrusive & extrusive
what are clastic rocks
sedimentary rocks made up of rock fragments mixed with sand, clay and mud
what are chemical rocks
sedimentary rocks formed from large amounts of minerals when a body of water dries up
what are organic rocks
sedimentary rocks built up from the remains of living things
what are intrusive rocks
igneous rocks that form from melted rock or magma tht cools and hardens deep BELOW earth's surface
what are extrusive rocks
igneous rocks formed from melted rocks or magma that cools and hardens AT OR NEAR earth's surface