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71 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who made the 1st periodic table?
Russian scientist Dmitri Mendeleev
How did Medeleev arrange table?
1- by increasing atomic mass
2-rows: 17 x 7
3-repetition of properties
what were the problems with Medeleev's table?
1- left blank spaces for missing (non-discovered) elements
2- some elements seemed in wrong place
3- knew his stuff
Who made the current periodic table?
Henry Mosely
How did Henry organize table?
-increasing atomic numbers
- properties repeat at certain frequencies
What law did Henry Mosely create? what does it mean?
Periodic Law-
properties of elements repeat in an orderly pattern based on atomic #
What are the families on the per. table?
vertical pieces
what is group 1
Alkali metals
group 2
Alkaline earth metals
group 3
transition metals
group 13, 14 15
no name
group 16
Chalcogens
why are they called chalcogens?
because their compounds are chalky
group 17
Halogens or slat formers
what is another name for the halogens?
the noble or inert gases
-don't react
What model did JJ Thomson make?
Plum pudding model-
Neg. electrons randomly embedded in a sphere of positive charge
What experiment did Rutherford make?
Gold foil
what was the 1st step of rutherfords exp.?
Takes gold foil
What was the 2nd experiment of Rutherford?
He shoots at foil
what was rutherfords assumption of the gold foil experiment?
that the alpha particles should go straight through because there shouldn't be anything bigger than an electron
What happened when rutherford shot the alpha particles through the foil?
most of them went through but some of them bounced off i different directions
what was the conclusion of rutherfords experiment?
Something in the atom (nucleus) was big enough to deflect the particles
What doe the stair step line do?
it separates the metals from the non-metals
Metals are are to the____ of the stair step
left
non metals are to the ___ of the stair step
right
What are the 5 characteristics of metals?
1-conduct the electricity & heat
2- solid @ room temp
3- shiny (luster)
4- malleable
5- ductile
What are the 3 characteristics of non metals?
1- don't conduct electricity or heat ( insulators)
2- Many are gases
3-if solid, they are dull and brittle
Where are the metalloids located on the periodic table? which one is the exception?
right along the stair step line
- aluminum
what characteristics do metalloids have?
same ones as non metals and metals
What was the Rutherford and Bohr Planetary model? is it our current model?
electrons orbit the nucleus like planets orbit the sun
- no
What is the electromagnetic spectrum?
energy that travels in waves at the speed of light
what is the wave length measured in?
meters
what is the frequency of a wave
number of waves per sec.
-/sec
- 1/sec
-hertz (hz)
what is ground state?
when the electron in in the lowest energy level possible
How does an electron become excited?
if you add energy, electrons absorb it and go to higher energy levels
-not stable
What will happen to an electron in the excited state?
it will begin to release photons and it quickly fall back into ground state
what is a photon? who discovered it?
-chunk of energy
- max plank
what is the equation for electron energy?
E= hf
- E: energy
-h: constant
-f: frequency
If h is a constant then....
the higher the energy, the higher the frequency
what did Debrogile believe?
wave- particle duality
- that everything has both wave and particle characteristics
what was debrogiles equation?
w=h/mv
-w: wave length
-h: planks constant
-m:mass
-v: velocity
what can any particles with a mass and velocity create?
wavelength
what did Heisenburg do? what was his theory called?
treated electron as a particle
-Heisenburg uncertainty principle
what was the heisenburg uncertainty principle? what was the evidence of this?
you can't know both position and momentum of an electron at the same time
- small and fast, can't tell direction
-can't measure with modern tools
- measuring will change the location or momentum of the electron
what did schrodinger do?
treated the electron as a wave
- does very complicated math to determine the probable location of electron and atom
what were the results of schrodinger's experiment?
Orbital (electron cloud)
what is an orbital?
the region around the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron
what scientist brought us to the current atomic structure? what is it?
schrodinger
- the quantum theorem
what is the quantum theorem?
present day theory that electrons are located in orbitals
what are quantum numbers?
number that specifies the properties of an electrons
what do quantum numbers do? who many are there?
the narrow down the location of the electron
-4
What does the principle QN do? abbreviation
shows the energy level
-n
what does the angular QN show? abbreviation
the energy sub-level
what does the magnetic QN show? abbreviation
shows the orbital
-m
what does the spin QN show?
abbreviation
gives the spin of an electron
-s
what is the Pauli exclusion principle?
no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
what are the four sub-levels of electrons?
s,p,d,f
as n increases____
the electrons distance form the nucleus and energy level increases
if n= 1, how many sub levels? what is the sbl?
1 sbl
-s
if n= 2, how many sbl's?
what are they?
2 sbls
- s,p
if n=3, how many sbls?
what are they?
3 sbls
- s, p, d
if n=4, how many sbls?
what are they?
4 sbls
- s, p, d, f
s sbl has how many orbitals? what's it's shape?
1 orbital
-sphere
p sbl has how many orbitals? what's it;s shape?
3 orbitals
- dumbell
d sbl has how many orbitals? what is there shape?
5 orbitals
- cloverleaf
f has how many orbitals?
7 orbitals
- too complicated
what is the max. amount of electrons that each orbital can have?
what must they be?
- 2 electrons
- opposite spins
what is the aufbau principle?
electron enters the orbital of the lowest energy level first
what is hunds rule?
for multi orbitals (p,d,f) electrons sill singly, then pair up
-like a bus
what do dot diagrams do?
show valence electrons
what is a valence electron?
the outermost electron that is in the highest energy level