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47 Cards in this Set

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What are two ways to measure how good an antibiotic is for a given bacteria?
1. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
2. Agar diffusion method
Where would you find the MIC?
The first tbe where one see no growth.
Antiseptics
Generally too toxic for internal consumption but nontoxic enough to use topically
alcohol, detergents, iodidem silver nitrate
Antiseptics
Disinfectants and sterilants
Generally too toxic to be used even topically. Only used on inanimate objects. Used for sterilization of heat-sensitive materials.
Alcohol, chlorines, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, H2O2
Disinfectants and Sterilants
Chemotherapeutic Agent
Any defined chemical used to treat disease caused by an invading organism
How are chemotherapeutic agents classified/
Based on their structure and or mode of action.
What is strepomycin an example of?
Carbohyrate containing
What is Rifampin an example of?
Macrocyclic lactones
What is Mitomycin an example of?
Quinone-like
What is Ceftriaxone an example of?
AA and peptide analogs
What is polyoxin an exaple of?
Heterocyclic compounds containing N.
Cycloserine, Vanomycin, Bacitracin, Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Monobactams, Carbapenems do what?
Block cell wall synthesis
Actinomycin
RNA elongation
Quinolones, Novobiocin
DNA Gyrase
Trimethroprim, Sulfonamides
Folic acid Metabolism
Rifampin, stretovaricins
DNA-directed RNA polymerase
Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin, Lincomycin
Protein synthesis (translation)
Polymyxins
Cytoplasmic membrane structure
Tetracyclines, spectinomycin, streptomycin, Gentamicin, tobramycin, Amikacin, Nitrofurans
Protein synthesis (30S inhibitors)
Mupirocin, Puromycin
Protein Synthesis (tRNA)
Selective toxicity
Refers to the ability of an antimicrobial agent to be selectively more toxic to a microorganism than to animal cells
Growth Factor analogs
Mimic a factor required for growth. Type of synthetic Antimicrobial Drugs
Sulfanilamide
A p-aminobenzoic acid analog that blocks the synthesis for the vitamin folic acid (nucleic acid precursor) Type of sulfa drug
What do Quinolones target?
DNA Gyrase
What is nalidixic acid an example of?
Quinolones
Ciproflaxin
Fluronated derivative of nalidixic acid
Why aren't most antibiotics useless in medicine?
They are too toxic and have a low selective toxicity
What type of bacteria are usu more sensitive to antibiotics?
Gram positive
Broad spectrum
Antibiotics that act on both Gram positive and Gram negative
What do medically important anitbiotics target?
Cellualar structures or machinery of bacteria but not humans (ie cell wall, cytoplasmic mem, biosynthetic processes like transcription and translation)
What type of antibiotic do we get from fungi?
Beta-lactam antibiotics
What percent of antibiotics are Beta-lactams?
50%
What are the two flavors of beta lactams?
Penicillins and Cephalosporins
What has a broader spectrum pen or cepha?
cephalosporins
What do beta lactams inhibit?
Cell wall synthesis
These attack the Beta subunit for RNA polymerase.
Rifamycins, and streptovaricins
This fits into the major groove of DNA and presents a road block for polymerase
Actinomycin
How would an antibiotic that was affecting the bacterial translational machinery work?
They usu interact w/ rRNA and interfere w/ ribosome function
Example of antibiotics that inhibit translation initiation.
Kasugamycin
Inhibit translational elongation
Puromycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin
Aminoglycosides
Amino sugars linked by glycosidic bonds. They all inhibit protein sysnthesis by interacting w/ 30S subunits.
What type of bacteria are aminoglycosides effective against?
G- but they have been replaced by less toxic, more effective semi-synthetic antibiotics.
Macrolides
Lactone rings connected to sugars. Generally inhibit the 50S ribisomal subunit. Erythromycin is commonly used by people who are allergic to penicillin.
Tetracyclines
4-ring structure. One of the first broad specturm antibiotics
What do tetracyclines inhibit?
Protein synthesis that block the 30S subunit A site.