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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sets of behaviors that individuals occupying specific positions within a group are expected to perform
position or rank within a group
rules within a group indicating how its members should or should not behave
all forces (factors) that cause group members to remain in the group
social facilitation
effects upon performance resulting from the presence of others
drive theory of social facilitation
a theory suggesting that the mere presence of others is arousing and increases the tendency to perform dominant responses
evaluation apprehension
concern over being evaluated by others; such concern can increase arousal and so contribute to social facilitation
distraction-conflict theory
a theory suggesting that social facilitation stems from the conflict produced when individuals attempt, simultaneously, to pay attention to other persons and to the task being performed
additive tasks
tasks for which the group product is the sum or combination of the efforts of individual members
social loafing
reductions in motivation and effort when individuals work collectively in a group compared to when they work individually or as independent coactors
collective effort model
an explanation of social loafing suggesting that perceived links between individuals' effort and their outcomes are weaker when they work together with others in a group; this, in turn, produces tendencies toward social loafing
a process in which individuals or groups perceive that others have taken or will soon take actions incompatible with their own interests
social dilemmas
situations in which each person can increase his or her individual gains by acting in one way, but if all (or most) persons do the same thing, the outcomes experienced by all are reduced
a basic rule of social life suggesting that individuals tend to treat others as these persons have treated them
bargaining (negotiation)
a process in which opposing sides exchange offers, counteroffers, and concessions, either directly or through representatives
superordinate goals
goals that both sides to a conflict seek and that tie their interests together, rather than drive them apart
distributive justice (equity)
refers to individuals' judgments about whether they are receiving a fair share of available rewards - a share proportionate to their contributions to the group (or to any social relationship)
procedural justice
the fairness of the procedures used to distribute available rewards among group members
interactional (interpersonal) justice
the extent to which persons who distribute rewards explain or justify their decisions and show considerateness and courtesy to those who receive the rewards
decision making
processes involved in combining and integrating available information in order to choose one of several possible courses of action
social decision schemes
rules relating the initial distribution of members' views to final group decisions
group polarization
the tendency of group members, as a result of group discussion, to shift toward more extreme positions than those they initially held
the tendency of the members of highly cohesive groups to assume that their decisions can't be wrong, that all members must support the group's decisions strongly, and that information contrary to it should be ignored
devil's advocate technique
a technique for improving the quality of group decisions in which one group member is assigned the task of disagreeing with and criticizing whatever plan or decision is under consideration
authentic dissent
a technique for improving the quality of group decisions in which one or more group members actively disagree with the group's initial preference without being assigned this role