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109 Cards in this Set

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ANATOMY


1
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE OF STRUTURE
PHYSIOLOGY


2
SCIENTIFIC DISCIPLINE OF FUNCTION
PATHOLOGY


3
MEDICAL SCIENCE OF DISEASE
6 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION


4
1) CHEMICAL LEVEL
2) CELLULAR LEVEL
3) TISSUE LEVEL
4) ORGAN LEVEL
5) ORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL
6) ORGANISM LEVEL
CHEMICAL LEVEL


5
BUILDING BLOCKS OF ALL LIVING THINGS.
FORM & FUNCTION BEGIN AT THE ANATOMIC LEVEL
CELLULAR LEVEL


6
CELLS ARE THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE
ORGANELLES


7
ORGANS OF THE CELL
CYTOLOGY


8
STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF A CELL
CELL PHYSIOLOGY


9
PROCESSES OCCURING IN CELL
TISSUE LEVEL


10
FOUR TYPES:
EPITHEIAL--CONNECTIVE--MUSCLE--NERVOUS
HISTOLOGY


11
STRUCTURE OF TISSUES
ORGAN LEVEL


12
STRUCTURES WITH SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS.
CONTAINS 2 OR MORE TISSUSE TYPES
GROSS ANATOMY


13
STUDY OF STRUCTURES WITH THE NAKED EYE
SURFACE ANATOMY


14
CAN BE SEEN OR OUTLINE PAPATED
ORGAN SYSTEM


15
11 SYSTEMS
GROUPS OF ORGANS WITH COMMON FUNCTIONS
SYSTEMIC ANATOMY


16
STUDY OF BODY SYSTEM BY SYSTEM
NEUROPHYSIOLOGY


17
FOCUS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY


18
CHANGES IN STRUCTURE & FUNCTION WITH EXERCISE
ORGANISM LEVEL


19
GROUPS OF ORGAN SYSTEMS
ANY LIVING BEING CONSIDERED A WHOLE
HOMEOSTASIS


20
MAINTAINING A CONSTANT, STABLE ENVIROMENT IN THE BODY
SET POINT


20
AN IDEAL NORMAL VALUE
NORMAL RANGE


21
SAFE, ACCEPTABLE DEVIATION FROM SET POINT
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISM


22
BODY TRIES TO DECREASE DEVIATION FROM THE NORMAL
CONTROL CENTER


23
DETERMINES SET POINT, GIVES ORDERS FOR CHANGE
RECEPTOR


24
MONITORS THE VAULE OF A VARIBLE- HALL MONITOR
EFFECTOR


26
PROCESSE THAT RESTORES SET POINT. INFORMATION IS SENT FOR REACTION
STIMULUS


27
FACTORS WHICH THROW SYSTEM OUT OF BALANCE
POSITIVE FEEDBACK


28
MECHANISM MAKES THE DEVIATION WORSE
EXAMPLE-LABOR AND DELIVERY
ANATOMIC POSITION


29
STANDING
ARMS HANGING AT SIDE
PALMS FACING FORWARD
SUPINE


30
LYING FACE UP
PRONE


31
LYING FACE DOWN
INFERIOR


32
TOWARD TAIL, FEET
SUPERIOR


33
TOWARDS THE HEAD
ANTERIOR


34
FRONT OF BODY
POSTERIOR


35
BACK OF BODY
CEPHALIC


41
TOWARDS THE HEAD
CAUDAL


42
TOWARDS THE TAIL(REGARDLESS OF BODY POSTION)
DORSAL


43
TOWARDS THE BACK
VENTRAL


44
TOWARDS THE BELLY
MEDIAL


45
TOWARDS THE MIDLINE
LATERAL


46
AWAY FROM MIDLINE ( SIDE)
PROXIMAL


47
NEAREST TO ORGIN
DISTAL


48
FARTHEST FROM ORGIN
SUPERFICIAL


49
NEAR THE SURFACE
DEEP


50
DEPP TO SURFACE
ARM
FOREARM

51
SHOULDER TO ELBOW
ELBOW TO HAND

UE=ALL
THIGH
LEG

52
HIP TO KNEE
KNEE TO ANKLE

LE= ALL
CEPHALIC

53
FRONTAL=FOREHEAD
ORBITAL= EYE
NASAL= NOSE
OTIC= EAR
BUCCAL= CHEEK
ORAL= MOUTH
MENTAL= CHIN
CRANIAL


54
SKULL
OCCIPITAL= BASE OF SKULL
NUCHAL= BACK OF NECK
TRUNK


55
THORACIC= THORAX
CLAVICULAR= COLLARBONE
PECTORAL= CHEST
STERNAL= BREASTBONE
MAMMARY= BREAST
TRUNK


55
SCAPULAR= SHOULDER BLADE
VERTEBRAL= SPINAL COLUMN
LUMBAR= LOIN
SACRAL = BETWEEN HIPS
GLUTEL= BUTTOCK
PERINAL= PERINEAL
TRUNK


56
ABDOMINAL= ABDOMEN
UMBILICAL= NAVEL
PELVIC= PELVIS
INGUINAL=GROIN
PUBIC= GENTIAL
UE=ALL


57
ACROMIAL=POINT OF SHLDR
AXILLARY=ARMPIT
BRACHIAL= ARM
CUBITAL=ELBOW
ANTECUBIAL= ANT ELBOW
OLECRANON=POST ELBOW
MANUAL= HAND
CARPAL= WRIST
PALMAR= PALM
DORSUM= POST HAND
DIGITAL= FINGERS, TOES
LE=ALL


58
COXAL=HIP
FEMORAL= THIGH
PATELLAR= KNEECAP
GENICULATE= POST KNEE
CRURAL= LEG
SURAL=CALF
TALUS= ANKLE
PEDAL=FOOT
DORSUM SUP FOOT=INSTEP
PLANTER= INF FOOT
CALCANEAL=HEEL
DIGITAL= TOES, FINGERS
BODY PLANES


59
SAGITTAL= SEPARTES L/R HALVES
MEDIAN=MIDSAGITTAL= SPECIFIC TRUNK INTO L/R
TRANSVERSE=SUPERIOR/INFERIOR
FRONTAL= ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR
MRI


60
LONGITUDINAL= THROUGH THE LONG AXIS OF ORGAN
CROSS-SECTION= AT RIGHT ANKLE TO LONG AXIS(AKA-TRANSVERSE)
OBLIQUE= CROSS SECTION AT AN ANGLE
BODY CAVAITIES


61
THORACIC=INSIDE RIB CAGE
MEDIASTINUM= IN BETWEEN LUNGS
ABDOMINAL=INFR TO DIAPHRAGM
PELVIC=NO SUP BORDER( AKA-ABDOMINOPELVIC)
QUADRANTS


62
RIGHT UPPER-RIGHT LOWER
LEFT UPPER - LEFT LOWER
REGIONS


63
RIGHT HYPOCHONDRIAC=R.KIDNEY, R. KIDNEY
RIGHT LUMBAR= GALLBLADDER, ASC COLON
RIGHT ILIAC= CECUM,APPENDIX
EPIGASTRIC=ESOPH,L. LIVER, DUODENUM, PANCR HEAD, STOMACH
REGIONS


64
UMBILICAL=TRANS COLON, SMALL INTEST,ABDOM AORTA,INF VENA CAVA,URETER
HYPOGASTRIC= RECTUM,BLADDER
LEFT HYPOCHONDRIAC= SPLEEN, PANCR TAIL,L. KINDEY
LEFT LUMBAR= DESC COLON
LEFT ILIAC=
SEROUS MEMBRANES


65
2-LAYER BARRIER BETWEEN ORGANS AND WALLS OF BODY CAVITIES. FLUID BETWEEN IS SLICK, LUBRICATING-PREVENTS FRICTION
VISCERAL SEROUS MEMBRANE
PARIETAL SEROUS MEMBRANE

66
INNER-SURROUNDS ORGANS
OUTER- LINES CAVITY WALL
HEART-VISCERAL PERICARDIUM
PARIETAL PERICARDIUM
PERICARDIAL CAVITY
67
MEMBRANE COVERS THE HEART
MEMBRANE LINES BODY WALL
SMALL SPACE BETWEEN THE 2 FILLED WITH LUBRICATION
LUNGS-VISCERAL PLEURA
PARIETAL PLEURA
PLEURAL CAVITY
68
MEMBRANE COVERS LUNG
LINES BODY WALL
SMALL SPACE FILLED WITH LUBRICATION
ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY-
VISCERAL PERITONEUM
PARIETAL PERITONEUM
PERITONEAL CAVITY
COVERS ORGANS
LINES BODY WALL
SMALL SPACE FILLED WITH LUBRICATION
MESENTERIES


70
2 LAYERS OF PERITONEUM FUSED TOGETHER- ANCHORS ORGANS TO ORGANS OR BODY WALL
RETROPERITONEAL ORGANS


71
KIDNEYS,ADRENAL GLANDS,PANCREAS, URINARY BLADDER, PARTS OF INTESTINES
PH


72
THE HYDROGEN CONCENTRATION IN A SOLUATION
NEUTRAL=7
ACIDIC=GREATER THAN 7
ALKALINE= LESS THAN 7
NORMAL HUMAN BLOOD PH
ACIDOSIS
ALKALOSIS


73
7.35 TO 7.45
BLOOD DROPS BELOW 7.35
BLOOD PH ABOVE 7.45
OSMOSIS


74
DIFFUSION OF SOLVENT ACROSS A SELECTIVELY PERMBLE MEMBRANE
OSMOTIC PRESSURE

ISOTONIC
HYPERTONIC
HYPOTONIC


75
FORCE REQUIRED TO PREVENT MOVEMENT OF WATER
CELL NEITHER SHRINKS OR SWELLS
CELL LOSSES WATER& SHRINKS
CELL TAKES IN WATER&SWELLS
3 EMBROYONIC GERM LAYERS


76
ECTODERM=OUTER LAYER
ENDODERM= INNER LAYER
MESODERM= MIDDLE LAYER
FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIA


77
PROTECTION
BARRIER
FILTER
SECRETATION
ABSORPTION
EPITHELIAL BORDERS


78
APICAL SURFACE-SKIN OPEN TO ENVIROMENT
LATERAL SURFACE-SIDES OF TISSUSE
BASAL SURFACE- ABOVE THE BASEMENT
BASEMENT- UNDER SIDE OF TISSUE
LAYERS OF EPITHELIUM


79
SIMPLE-SINGLE LAYER
STRATIFIED-MORE THAN ONE LAYER
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR- MODIFIED SIMPLE
TRANSITIONAL-MODIFIED STRATIFIED
SHAPE OF EPITHELIUM


80
SQUAMOUS-SCALELIKE-FLAT
CUBOIDAL-CUBE-SHAPED
COLUMNAR-TALLER THAN THEY ARE WIDE
2 MORE DISTINCTIONS OF STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

81
NONKERATINIZED-MOIST & FLUID = MOUTH,RECTUM,VAGINA
KERATINIZED-DRY= SKIN
APICAL SURFACES DESCRIPTION


82
SMOOTH- REDUCES FRITION-SEROUS MEMBRANES AND LINING OF BLOOD VESSELS
MICROVILLI- INCREASES SURFACE AREA;ABSORB7SECRETE=DIGESTIVE TRACT
STEREOCILIA-ELONGATED MICROVILIA= INNER EAR " HAIR CELLS"
CILIA- MICROTUBLES FOR MOVEMENT=MUCOUS,UTERINE TUBES
LATERAL & BASILAR DESCRIPTION


83
PERMABLE BARRIER
INTERCELLULAR COMMUNACATION
MECHANICALLY BIND CELLS TOGETHER
GLANDS
EXOCRINE
ENDOCRINE
84
ORGANS THAT SECRETE SUBSTANCES
GLANDS WITH DUCTS
GLANDS WITHOUT DUCTS
CONNECTIVE TISSUSE
6 TYPES

85
MAKES UP PART OF EVERY ORGAN IN BODY
1) LOOSE
2) DENSE REGULAR& IRREGULAR
3) SPECIAL PROPERTIES
4) CARTILAGE
5) BONE
6) BLOOD
FUNCTIONS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE


86
ENCLOSING& SEPARTING
CONNECTING TISSUES TO EACH OTHER
STORAGE
CUSHION& INSULATION
SPECIALIZED CELLS BY SUFFIX


87
BLAST= CREATE
CYTES= MAINTAIN
CLASTS= BREAK DOWN
EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX


88
PROTEIN FIBERS- ALLOWS CONNECTIVE TISSUES TO PREFORM ITS SPECFIC FUNCTIONS
NAME 3 EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX FIBERS

89
COLLAGEN = STRONG,FLEXIBLE, INELASTIC-TENDONS,LIGAMENTS
RETICULAR= FINE COLLAGEN, SPACE FILLERS
ELASTIC= ABILITY TO STRETCH& RETURN-EPITHELAL
LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
DESCRIPTION

90
AKA-AREOLAR
ATTACHS SKIN TO UNDERLYING TISSUE
MEDIUM BETWEEN STRUCTURE7 DEEP STRUCTURE
COLLAGEN,RETICULAR,ELASTIC FIBERS
MAST CELLS


91
CONTAINS HEPARIN,HISTAMINE,PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES
PLAY A ROLE IN INJURY,INFECTION,INFLAMMATION
DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE
DESCRIPTION

92
FILLING ALMOST ALL EXTRACELLULAR SPACE
COLLAGENOUS&ELASTIC
DENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVE
DESCRIPTION

93
RADOMLY ORIENTED FIBERS, ALTERNATING LAYERS PROVIDES STRENGTH WITH FLEXIBLITY
CONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH SPECIAL PROPERTIES

94
ADIPOSE-FAT( WARMTH,PROTECTION,ENERGY STORAGE)
RETICULAR-IRREGULAR (SPLEEN,LYMPH,CARTILAGE)
CARTILAGE


96
FORMS FROM ITSELF FROM CHONDOCYTES
EXTENSIVE AND RIGID MATRIX
FIRM BUT FLEXIBLE
LACUNA


97
SPACES WHERE CHONDOCYTES RESIDE
NAME THREE TYPES OF CARTILAGE & THEIR LOCATIONS

98
HYALINE-IN THE JOINTS
FIBROCARTILAGE-INTERVERTEBRAL DISK
ELASTIC- EXTERNAL EAR, EPIGLOTTIS
NAME TWO WAYS CARTILAGE GROWS


99
APPOSTIONAL= ADDED TO THE SURFACE OF CARTILAGE
INTERSTITAL= FORMED WITHIN THE CARTILAGE
BONE


100
HARD,ALIVE;MINERALIZED
NAME TWO TYPES OF BONE


101
CANCELLOUS BONE-AKA-SPONY
COMPACT BONE
CANCELLOUS BONE


102
LAYERED NETWORK CALLED TRABECULAE, SPACES BETWEEN TRABECULAE CONTAIN BONE MARROW FOR BLOOD FORMATION
EX.-INTERIOR SKULL,VERTEBRAE,PELVIS
COMPACT BONE


103
ALMOST NO SPACE BETWEEN THIN LAYERS CALLED LAMELLAE
EX.- SHAFTS OF LONG-BONES; SURFACE OF ALL BONES
TWO TYPES OF BONE MARROW


104
RED=PRODUCES RED& WHITE BLOOD CELLS
YELLOW= DOESN'T PRODUCE BLOOD- YELLOW ADIPOSE
HEMOPOIETIC TISSUE


105
ANOTHER NAME FOR BONE MARROW
MUSCLE TISSUSE


104
CONTAINS THE ABILITY TO CONTRACT OR SHORTEN MOVEMENT OF THE BODY AS WELL AS MOVEMENT. 40% OF BODY WEIGHT
NAME THREE TYPES OF MUSCLE TISSUE-TYPE OF CONTROL- APPERANCE
105
SKELETAL=VOLUNTARY CONTROL-STRIATED
CARDIAC-HEART-INVOLUNTARY- CYLINDRICAL STRIATED
SMOOTH-INVOLUNTARY-NO STRIATIONS-WALLS OF HOLLOW ORGANS
NERVOUS TISSUE


106
2 SYSTEMS-CNS=BRAIN& SPINAL CORD
PNS= PERIPHERAL NERVES
NEURONS DESCRIPTION


107
CELL BODY=NUCLEUS&CELL FUNCTIONS
DENDRITES=RECIEVE ACTION POTENTIAL
AXON= CONDUCT ACTION POTENIAL TOWARDS NEXT NEURON
NEUROGLIA


108
SUPPORTS CELLS CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
PROVIDES FOOD,PROTECTION,INSULATION
NAME THREE TYPES OF MEMBRANES


109
MUCOUS-EPITHELIAL, LOOSE CONNECTIVE
SYNOVIAL-LUBRICATION&NUTRITION
SEROUS-LINES CAVITIES
MUCOUS MEMBRANE

110
EPITHEIAL, LAMINA PROPRIA ( LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE) SECRETE MUCOUS
RESPIRATORY-REMOVES DUST
DIGESTIVE-EXCRETION
REPRODUCTIVE-LUBRICATION
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANES


111
COMBO DENSE CONNECTIVE,ARELAR,ADIPOSE
LINE JOINTS-LUBRICATION & NUTRITION
JOINT CARTILAGE- GREASED ICE
LIKE WD40 FOR THE BODY
SEROUS MEMBRANES


112
LINE CAVITIES, PREVENTS FRICTION