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214 Cards in this Set

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What Is Meant By "Systematic Theology?" What Are Its Divisions?
The study that attempts to arrange the teaching of Scripture in a coherent fashion, expressing it in a contemporary form, and relating it to issues of practical Christian concern.

- Divisions include:
God
Humanity
The Person and Work of Christ
The Person and Work of the Holy Spirit
Salvation
Church
The Last Things (Eschatology)
What Is The "Reformed Faith?" (Explain As To A New Christian.)
The Reformed faith is an approach to understanding (a system of belief and practice) God and the Bible through stressing what the Bible stresses: the need of man, the grace of God; the absolute sovereignty of God, the centrality of the Bible to all of life, Covenantal doctrine of Scripture, Sufficiency of the work of Christ, Effectual work of the Holy Spirit
What Is "Covenant Theology?" Why Is It Important? (Explain As To A New Christian.)
Covenant Theology is a way of understanding how God relates to mankind. In the days of the Old Testament covenants were relationships between kings and his people. God chose to use that relationship/covenant to show how He relates to His people, only much more based on grace. Covenant theology believes that God has always dealt with His people in a similar way, both in the Old Testament and the New. The only way they have gotten to be in relationship is because He graciously chose to favor them with His presence. God’s people have always been saved by grace through faith in the hopes that God would deliver them from the punishment they deserved.
Covenant theology is important because it maintains the unity and continuity of the Old and New Testaments and the way God relates to His people in each. Covenant theology recognizes God's sovereignty over of history as an outworking of His loving grace.
List And Explain The 'Five Points Of Calvinism.' Where Did They Come From?
Total Depravity – through the fall, every part of man has been corrupted by the effects so that man is not able to restore His relationship with God. God must restore relationship if man is to enter into fellowship with God. Romans 3:10-18; Gen. 6:5.
Unconditional Grace – God's choice of certain persons to salvation is not dependent upon any foreseen virtue or faith on their part. Rom. 9:11-13; Tit. 3:4-5.
Limited Atonement, Particular Redemption – Christ came to save those the Father had given Him. All those Christ died for, God will draw to Himself. Sufficient for all, effectual for the elect. John 6:37,39 & 10:14-15.
Irresistible Grace – The elect come to faith by the Spirit’s effectual call. Grace changes your nature giving you the ability to choose Him. John 6:37; 10:26-27; Acts 13:48.
Perseverance of the Saints – By God’s grace and perseverance, those who genuinely come to trust in Christ, despite their weaknesses, are preserved in the faith till the end. John 10:18; Rom. 8:28-37; Phil. 1:6
Define And Distinguish "General Revelation" And "Special Revelation."
General Revelation is truth about God available to everyone through nature, history and God's image in mankind. – Qualities rendering man without excuse. WCF 1.1 & Psalm 19:1-3
Special Revelation is what God has revealed about Himself to His people, through special messengers (angels or prophets), Jesus Christ, or the Scripture. Certain theological knowledge, i.e., the way of salvation, can come only through this method. – Mediated through word and spirit. WCF 1.1 & 2 Tim.3:15.
Define And Defend (Including Scripture Proofs) The "Inspiration" Of Scripture.
To say that the Scripture is inspired is to say the it is God's special revelation-a product of God' s direct intellectual superintending of the men who wrote it. Therefore the inspired Scriptures are the very words of God and thus are the absolute and immutable authoritative rule for faith and practice. 2 Tim.3:16, Heb. 1:1-2, 2 Pet.1:21.
Define And Defend The "Necessity" Of Scripture.
Scripture is necessary as a means of revealing the saving truth of Jesus Christ, “the knowledge of God and of his will that is necessary for salvation”. WLC #2, Rom. 10:17, 1 Cor.2:11
What Is The "Canon"? Defend It Scripturally.
Canon means rule, measure or standard. The Old Testament canon was confirmed by Jesus himself (Matthew 5:17). The New Testament built on the teaching of Jesus as he taught and trained the disciples to accurately share his message. Matthew 10: sending out of the twelve with a specific message. John 20: Jesus appears to twelve with final instructions and Holy Spirit. 2 Peter 3, Peter understands Paul to be writing Scripture. Matt. 5:17, 2 Pet.3:15-16.
Define And Defend The "Authority" Of Scripture.
The authority of Scripture rests not with any humans but solely with God, inspired by the Holy Spirit which makes , it God's very word. It possesses historical authority in that it is 100% historically reliable. It possesses normative authority in that it is God's rule for faith and practice.
2 Tim.3:16-17.
Define And Defend The "Sufficiency" Of Scripture.
Scripture is complete, containing all that is needed for God’s glory and for man’s salvation, faith, and life. WCF 1.6
Define And Defend The "Perspicuity" Of Scripture.
The knowledge of saving faith is so clearly and simply presented in Scripture that anyone who earnestly seeks salvation therein can easily gain this knowledge for himself, and need not depend on the church or the priesthood to attain it. WCF 1.7
What Is Distinctive About Reformed Interpretation Of Scripture?
It sees the continuity between the Old and New Testament. The principle of private interpretation, that is, the right of the individual believer to interpret Scripture without the aid of a priest or any other.
What Principles Should Guide Our Interpretation Of Scripture?
Scripture is the only infallible rule of interpretation. When there is ambiguity concerning one passage, the true meaning must be found in other clearer portions of Scripture. WCF 1.9
Define And Defend (Including Scripture Proofs) The "Inerrancy" Of Scripture.
The Bible, in all that it teaches, is free from error. Where it speaks to history it is true, but it doesn't speak to everything.
What Do The Scriptures Principally Teach?
What man is to believe concerning God and what duty God requires of man. (WCF 2-5: WLC 7-19: WSC 4-11)
What is God?
WSC #4 God is a spirit, infinite, eternal, and unchangeable, in his being, his wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness, and truth.
Briefly Explain And Defend (Including Scripture Proofs) The Doctrine Of The Trinity.
WSC #5 There is but one God only, the living and true God
WSC #6 There are three persons in the Godhead: the Father, The Son, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are on God, the same in substance, equal in power and glory.
Deut. 6:4 (ESV) "Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one.
Matthew 28:19 (ESV) Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
2 Cor. 13:14 (ESV) The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all.
What Are The Attributes Of God? (Be Prepared To Offer Scripture Proofs.)
WSC #5 God is a Spirit infinite, eternal and unchangeable in his being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness and truth
Which Are Communicable?
Wisdom: James 1:5 (ESV) If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him.
Holiness: Leviticus 11:44 (ESV) For I am the Lord your God. Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy, for I am holy. You shall not defile yourselves with any swarming thing that crawls on the ground. 1 Peter 1:16 (ESV) since it is written, "You shall be holy, for I am holy."
Justice: Amos 5:15 (ESV) Hate evil, and love good, and establish justice in the gate; it may be that the Lord, the God of hosts, will be gracious to the remnant of Joseph. Micah 6.8- He has shown you, oh man, what is good and what the Lord requires of you- but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God
Which are Incommunicable?
Infinite: Job 11:7-9 (ESV) "Can you find out the deep things of God? Can you find out the limit of the Almighty? [8] It is higher than heaven—what can you do? Deeper than Sheol—what can you know? [9] Its measure is longer than the earth and broader than the sea.
Eternal: Psalm 90:2 (ESV) Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever you had formed the earth and the world, from everlasting to everlasting you are God.
Unchangeable: James 1:17 (ESV) Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights with whom there is no variation or shadow due to change.
What are the decrees of God?
The decrees of God are, his eternal purpose, according to the counsel of his will, whereby, for his own glory, God has foreordained whatsoever comes to pass- WSC #7
What is the difference between infralapsarian and supralapsarian view of God's decrees?
Infra: views God’s decrees historically
God decreed to CREATE man in holiness
God decreed to permit the FALL
God decreed to ELECT some
God decreed to PASS over others
Supra: views God’s decrees logically (elect before the fall)
Decree to ELECT some and pass over others
Decree to CREATE
Decree to PERMIT the fall
Decree to JUSTIFY the elect and condemn the reprobate
What is an Amyraldian view of God's decrees?
A system of Reformed theology based on the premise that God wills all to be saved if they believe. – Moise Amyraut of the Saumer Academy- Unlimited Atonement or 4 point Calvinist
How does God execute his decrees?
God executes his decrees through the works of creation and providence- WSC #8
What is God's work of creation?
The work of creation is, God’s making of all things out of nothing, by the word of his power, in the space of six days, and all very good- WSC #9
Briefly discuss the length of the days of creation.
I don’t think the scriptures are clear on the length. I see them as analogical days. They are God’s work days.
Evaluate biblically the theory of evolution.
Naturalistic Evolution- believes everything, including matter and man developed by natural random processes and are purely a result of natural forces functioning over a period of time. Naturalistic evolution denies God’s work of creation and providence. This system denies that God created the world out of nothing, by the power of his word, in the space of six days.
Theistic Evolution- believes that God as the worker/ mover behind the process set the evolutionary process in motion.
This system , though acknowledging God as creator, gives him little more credit than first cause. This theory tends to view the creation account as mythical and denies God the sovereign capacity to create as he claims in Genesis 1-2 (essentially a form of Deism)
What is God's work of providence?
God’s work of providence are his most holy, wise and powerful, preserving and governing of all his creatures and all their actions- WSC #11
What is a miracle?
When God works without, above or against the normal means of his providence.
“God in His ordinary providence, makes use of means, yet is free to work without, above, and against them, at His pleasure - WCF 5.3
Do miracles occur today? Explain.
If we take miracle to mean that God working without second causes for the sake of the affirmation of revelation, like Warfield does, then I would not affirm that miracles occur today due to the closed nature of the canon. In saying this I would also add that I would at the same time affirm what Warfield called “extra-ordinary” acts of providence. In other words, I do think God still answers prayer in quite extraordinary ways (for example prayers for healing).
Is God responsible for sin?
NO
Did he decree it?
God from all eternity, did, by the most wise and holy counsel of his own will, freely, and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass: yet so, as thereby neither is God the author of sin, nor is violence offered the will of the creatures; nor is liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established -WCF 3.1
Did he permit it?
In that nothing takes place in all the universe without God’s permission.
Who is the ultimate cause of all things?
God is!
God from all eternity, did by the most holy and wise counsel of his own will, freely and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass… WCF 3.1
The decrees of God are his eternal purpose, according to the counsel of his will, whereby, for his own Glory, God has ordained whatsoever comes to pass. - WSC #7
What is theodicy?
A philosophical attempt to vindicate the justice and goodness of God, especially in view of the fact of evil, which is normally felt or judged to constitute a challenge to such attributes of God.
If God is good and all-powerful, explain AIDS, deformed babies, natural disasters.
The affirmation that God is good and all-powerful does not deny the reality that we live in a fallen world. Though God created the world good man in his rebellion against God brought sin into the world and with it sickness, destruction and death. However, God’s goodness is still seen in his common grace as he holds his creation together, as well as in his sovereign acts of providence. WE see God’s goodness in his willingness to subject himself to the depravity of the world in order to redeem us from the world and his all powerful sovereignty in his even using that which is otherwise evil to work good for those who love him and are called according to his purpose.
Discuss the biblical teaching regarding predestination, election, and reprobation.
By the decree of God, for the manifestation of his glory, some men and angels are predestined unto everlasting life; and others foreordained to everlasting death- WCF 3.3 Romans 9
Distinguish the Reformed and Arminian understandings of these doctrines.
Arminians do not accept the Reformed doctrine of absolute predestination. Rather they support the doctrine of conditional predestination, that is, that God predestined his Elect based on the condition of his foreknowledge that they would believe.
Are these doctrines compatible with belief in real human choice and responsibility?
“nor is violence offered the will of creatures; nor is liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established- WCF 3.1. It seems to me that the Bible affirms both sovereignty of God and responsibility of man. (He will not leave the guilty unpunished)
What should be some of the practical results of believing the doctrine of election?
Humility, gratitude, comfort, security, assurance, grace/mercy towards others, obedience out of thankfulness
Is there a real, personal devil? Explain from Scripture.
Yes, Job 1; Matthew 4
What is the chief end of man?
"Man's chief end is to glorify God and to enjoy him forever. " -WSC #1
1 Cor. 10:31 (ESV) So, whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.
What is the supreme activity of man? (Catechism: "what does God require of man?")
Obedience to God's revealed will.
"The duty God requires of man is obedience to his revealed will." - WSC #39
What does the Bible teach about the creation of human beings?
“God created man male and female, after his own image, in knowledge, righteousness, and
holiness, with dominion over the creatures.” - WSC #10
“After God had made all other creatures, He created man, male and female with reasonable and immortal souls, endued with knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, after His own image, having the law of God written in their hearts and power to fulfill it; and yet under a possibility of transgressing being left to the liberty of their own will which was subject unto change. Beside this law written in their hearts, they received a command not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil; which while they kept, they were happy in their communion with God, and had dominion over the creatures.” - WCF 4.2
In what way is a man in the image of God?
Man is endued with knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness.
"God created man male and female, after his own image, in knowledge, righteousness, and holiness. with dominion over the creatures. " (WSC #10)

Ephes. 4:24 (ESV) and to put on the new self, created after the likeness of God in true righteousness and holiness.

Col. 3:10 (ESV) and have put on the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge after the image of its creator.
Are all men in the image of God? If so, to what extent?
Yes, to the extent that they possess the characteristics listed above and realizing that all men, share in the fallen state which has corrupted (though not destroyed) that image
"Whosoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made man." (Genesis 9:6) [post-fall; post-flood]
"With the tongue we praise our Lord and Father, and with it we curse men, who have been made in God's likeness. " (James 3:1)
How does the doctrine of the image or God influence debates about gender roles?
They are equally the image of God.
"God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1:26,27)
Part of being in the image of God includes gender differences and complements. Both male and female are made in the image of God in a unique way, and thus are equal in dignity and worth as human beings. On the other hand, neither male nor female fully reflects the image of God without the other. Thus, there is a necessary complimentary relationship between the genders.
Where did man's soul come from? When?
Our soul is inherited from our parents-mediate origin. (Buswell).
God creates each new soul immediately-without second causes. (Berkhof).
What is sin? (See WSC 14). Include Scripture proofs.
"Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God. " (WSC #14)
"Everyone who has this hope in him purifies himself as he is pure. Everyone who sins breaks the law; in fact, sin is lawlessness. " (1 John 3:3,4)
"Anyone, then, who knows the good he ought to do and doesn't do it, sins. " (James 4: 17)
"For whoever keeps the whole law and yet stumbles at just one point is guilty of breaking all of it. " (James 2:10)
"All who rely on observing the law are under a curse, for it is written: 'cursed is everyone who does not continue to do everything written in the Book of the Law.'" (Galatians 3:10)
"Keep my decrees and laws, for the man who obeys them will live by them. I am the Lord. " (Leviticus 18:5)
Discuss guilt of sin and the corruption of sin.
Guilt is a judicial or legal concept describing one's relationship to the, law-in this case God's law. Guilt is the state of deserving condemnation or being liable to punishment because the law has been violated.

Corruption has to do with our moral condition.
“From this original corruption, whereby we are utterly indisposed, disabled and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil, do proceed all actual transgressions.” (WCF 6.4)
“This corruption of nature, during this life, doth remain in those that are regenerated; and although it be, through Christ, pardoned, and mortified; yet both itself, and all the motions thereof, are truly and properly sin.” (WCF 6.5)
Define and discuss original sin (include Scripture proofs).
The effects of Adam ' s sin on the lives of all his descendants
. "The sinfulness of that estate where into man fell consists in the guilt of Adam 's first sin, the want of original righteousness, and the corruption of his whole nature, which is commonly called original sin; together with all actual transgressions that proceed from it. " (WSC #18)
"Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men. because all sinned...For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous. " (Romans 5: 12,19; see also second half of the chapter)
" For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man. For as in Adam all die. So in Christ all will be made alive. "-1 Corinthians 15:21,22
How can original sin be reconciled to the canons of justice, either human or divine?
The covenant was made with Adam and all his descendants, therefore Adam’s sin was the transgression of all men. This transgression requires of it the payment of the penalty of death. Thus, original sin is not only reconcilable with the perfect justice of God, his justice actually requires it.
"The covenant being made with Adam as a public person, not for himself only, but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him in that first transgression. " (WLC #22)
Is there any good remaining in a fallen, sinful man? Explain.
No. The fall has so corrupted and permeated all of man's being that nothing he does is not in some way effected by that fall.
"From this original corruption. whereby we are utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil, do proceed all actual transgression. " (WCF 6.4)
In what ways does man sin?
In that man does not perfectly conform to the righteous requirements of the law, but rather
transgresses that law, he sins.
"Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God. " (WSC #14)
What are some of the consequences of sin?
"All mankind by their fall lost communion with God, are under his wrath and curse, and so made liable to all the miseries of this life, to death itself; and to the pains of hell forever. (WSC#19)
Is the will of man free? Explain (include Scripture proofs).
• Created: possible to sin
• Fallen: not possible not to sin
• Redeemed: possible not to sin
• Glorified: not possible to sin
"God has endued the will of man with that natural liberty, that it is neither forced, nor by any absolute necessity of nature, determined to good, or evil. "(WCF 9.1)
"Bu1 I tell you, Elijah has already come, and they did not recognize him, but have done to him everything they wished. " (Matthew 17:12)
But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. " (James 1:14)
"I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life, that both you and your seed may live. "-Deuteronomy 30:19
Was Adam's will (before he sinned) free? Explain; include Scripture proofs.
Yes.
"Man, in his state of innocency, had freedom, and power to will and to do that which was good and well pleasing to god; but yet, mutably, so that he might fall from it. " (WCF 9.2)
"Our first parents, being left to the freedom of their own will, fell from the estate wherein they were created, by sinning against God. " (WSC #13)
"And the Lord God commanded the man, you are free to eat from any tree in the garden; but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die. " (Genesis 2:16-17)
“This only have I found: God made men upright, but men have gone in search of many schemes.” (Ecclesiastes 7:29)
Can a sinner do anything good? Explain; include Scripture proofs.
No (The confession defines "good" deeds as those which are glorifying to God).
"There is no one righteous, not even one; there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. " (Romans 3:10,11)
"All of us have become like one who is unclean, and all our righteous acts are like filthy rags; we all shrivel up like a leaf, and like the wind our sins sweep us away. " (Isaiah 64:6)
Is a sinner's will free to believe? Explain; include Scripture proofs.
Not without the regeneration of the Holy Spirit.
"Man, by his fall into a state of sin, has wholly lost all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying
salvation: so as, a natural man, being altogether averse from that good, and dead in sin, is not able, by his own strength, to convert himself, or to prepare himself thereunto. " (WCF 9.3)
"The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned. "(1 Cor. 2: 14)
"This is the verdict: Light has come into the world, but men loved darkness instead of light because their deeds were evil. Everyone who does evil hates the light, and will not come into the light for fear that his deeds will be exposed. " (1 John 3:19,20)
Does a believer have free will? Explain; include Scripture proofs.
Yes, as God's grace enables him.
"When God converts a sinner, and translates him into the state of grace, he frees him from his natural bondage under sin; and, by his grace alone, enables him .freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good; yet so, as that by reason of his remaining corruption, he does not perfectly, nor only, will that which is good, but does also will that which is evil. " (WCF 9.4)
"You have been set free from sin and have become slaves to righteousness. " (Romans 6: 18)
“But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves to God, the benefit you reap leads to holiness, and results in eternal life. " (Romans 6:22)
What is a covenant?
-It is an agreement between persons. The elements of a covenant consist of parties, obligations/stipulations, promises, oaths/vows, blessings and curses and witnesses.
God’s covenant with man is described as a “voluntary condescension on God’s part” (WCF 7).
What is the Covenant of Works? Who are its parties?
-(WSC 12) When God had created man, he entered into a covenant of life with him, upon condition of perfect obedience; forbidding him to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, upon pain of death.
-The parties are God and Adam, as well as all the descendants of Adam.
Is there a present validity to the Covenant of Works?
-The present validity of the Covenant of Works is the federal headship of Adam. He is our representative, and his sin and the subsequent effects of the fall are passed down to his descendants. We have sinned, fallen, and reaped the consequences of disobedience in Adam.
What is the Covenant of Redemption? who are its parties?
-(WSC 20) God, having out of his mere good pleasure, from all eternity, elected some to everlasting life, did enter into a covenant of grace to deliver them out of the estate of sin and misery, and to bring them into an estate of salvation by a Redeemer.
- (WLC 31) The covenant of grace was made with Christ as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect as his seed.
Discuss the Covenant of Grace
-Gracious = God had no obligation to enter into covenant and his word is the insurance of its validity.
-Trinitarian = Father elects, Son justifies, Spirit applies effectually
-Eternal = cannot be broken
-Particular = only effectual for the elect, not universal in scope
-One covenant of grace with various administrations (dispensations)
How is the Covenant of Grace related to the Abrahamic Covenant? Mosaic? Noahic?
-The promised Redeemer (seed of Gen 3:15 is coming one step closer in the covenant with Abraham. God chooses one man to be the eventual father of the promised Redeemer, the scope of the covenant encompasses all nations (eventually), and the sign of circumcision is added to the covenant as a physical reminder of God’s faithfulness to his covenant.
- The stipulations of the law are given in great detail under this administration of the covenant, regarding sacrifice, worship, and community, as a response to the redemption God achieves on behalf of his people.
- This administration of the covenant underscores God’s intention not to abandon the work of his hands but to sustain, preserve, and redeem his good creation through families, despite the ongoing presence of sin in the world.
Discuss the relationship between the Old and New Covenants. Defend from Scripture.
WCF 7. 6
WLC 32, 33, 34, 35
There is one covenant with different dispensations. (Galatians 3:14)
There is a distinction between the Old and New (Hebrews 8:13), and the New in this sense replaces the old.
Explain and defend with Scripture proofs the orthodox doctrine of the person of Christ.
(WSC 21) The only redeemer of God’s elect is the Lord Jesus Christ, who, being the eternal son of God, became man, and so was, and continues to be, God and man in two distinct natures, and one person, forever.
Luke 1:35 = birth of Christ, fully man
Colossians 2:9= fully God
Hebrews 1:1-4 = the union of both God and man
Briefly discuss the natures of Christ, including:
Was Christ a human person?
Does Christ have a soul?
(WSC 22) Christ took to himself a true body and a reasonable soul, being conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the virgin Mary and born of her, yet without sin.
What is kenosis?
Kenosis is a theological term from Philippians 2:5-11 which refers to the incarnation of Christ. He is described as having “emptied himself” and taken human form. In taking on human flesh, Christ is spoken of undergoing some manner of self-limitation. The emptying has two aspects to it: taking on the likeness of sinful humanity and enduring death on the cross. Dr. Bayer underscores the humility of Christ in not exercising all the privileges of the godhead in the incarnation.
Did Christ lay aside any of his divine attributes at the incarnation?
-No, Colossians 2:9 - “in Christ, all the fullness of the deity lives in bodily form”
Briefly explain and defend against the challenges to orthodox Christology posed by: Docetism
Christ only appears to become a man, the suffering and other human traits were merely imaginary phenomena - not a true body and a rational soul at the incarnation. John 20 and Thomas touching the nail prints and the wounded side of Jesus.
Briefly explain and defend against the challenges to orthodox Christology posed by:
Arius
Christ is not the eternal son of God, the first created being. John 1:1-14.
Briefly explain and defend against the challenges to orthodox Christology posed by:
Nestorius
Christ is divided into two persons, a human and divine. Colossians 2:9.
Briefly explain and defend against the challenges to orthodox Christology posed by:
Apollinarius
Christ lacked a human soul. WSC 22 - “reasonable soul”
Briefly explain and defend against the challenges to orthodox Christology posed by:
Eutyches
Christ only had one nature, a mixture of both human and divine. WSC 22- “two distinct natures”.
Are any these early heresies regarding the nature of Christ held today? If so, by whom?
The Jehovah Witnesses and the Mormons hold a form of Arianism.
Explain and defend the doctrine of the “communication of properties.”
- A term within Christology that attempts to account for the way in which each of Christ’s natures’ properties are interchanged in the unity of his personhood. Both the human and divine properties are held in common by the one person of Christ in the incarnation.
Define the following name:
Jesus
he will save his people from their sins
Define the following name:
Son of Man
Jesus favorite title for himself, taken from the book of Daniel
Define the following name:
Christ
Messiah, the anointed one of God
Define the following name:
Son of God
Jesus unique reality as the second member of the trinity
Define the following name:
Lord
New Testament designation for Christ as Yahweh.
Define the following name:
Lamb of God
Jesus as the sacrificial lamb who takes away the sins of the world
How was Christ born?
Christ, the Son of God, became man, by taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable soul, being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the Virgin Mary, and born of her yet without sin. WSC #22
Explain and defend the Virgin Birth.
WSC 22
Isaiah 7:14, Luke 1:16-38
Trace the revelation of the person and work of Christ from the beginning of the Old Testament.
promised redeemer in Gen 3:15
prophet, priest, and king
temple implements, sacrifices, and laws
Angel of the Lord
What is the humiliation of Christ?
Christ’s humiliation consisted in being born and that in a low condition made under the law undergoing the miseries of this life the wrath of God and the cursed death of the cross, in being buried and continuing under the power of death for a time.” WSC #26
Define and distinguish the active and passive obedience of Christ.
Active = He fulfills the stipulations of the moral law in perfect obedience
Passive= He willingly undergoes the curses of the law for our sakes.
What happened in the resurrection of Christ?
Christ's exaltation consisteth in his rising again from the dead on the third day, in ascending up into heaven, in sitting at the right hand of God the Father, and in coming to judge the world at the last day. – WSC#28
Discuss the “glorified body”
The glorified body is the resurrected state whereby the body is animated and guided wholly by the Spirit, free from sinful inclinations, imperishable, glorious and powerful.
What are the offices of Christ? How does Christ execute them?
Christ, as our Redeemer, executeth the offices of a prophet, of a priest, and of a king, both in his estate of humiliation and exaltation. WSC #23
Christ executeth the office of a prophet, in revealing to us, by his word and Spirit, the will of God for our salvation. WSC #24
Christ executeth the office of a priest, in his once offering up of himself a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice, and reconcile us to God, and in making continual intercession for us. WSC #25
Christ executeth the office of a king, in subduing us to himself, in ruling and defending us, and in restraining and conquering all his and our enemies. WSC #26
Who is the only redeemer of God’s elect?
The only Redeemer of God's elect is the Lord Jesus Christ, who, being the eternal Son of God, became man, and so was, and continueth to be, God and man in two distinct natures, and one person, for ever. -WSC 21
What is a redeemer?
Someone who buys back another from slavery or bondage of some sort.
What is the atonement?
Christ paying the penalty for our sin. He died my death and paid my debt. It combines the images of justifying, reconciling, substituting, and assuaging God’s wrath.
Was the atonement necessary?
Christ paying the penalty for our sin. He died my death and paid my debt. It combines the images of justifying, reconciling, substituting, and assuaging God’s wrath.
Why isn’t a good life enough to gain salvation?
Isaiah 53:6
Ephesians 2:1-10
Define:
Expiation
atonement for sins through the death of Christ on the cross as the sacrifice once and for all
Define:
Propitiation
turn away/satisfy God’s wrath
Define:
Reconciliation
restoring alienated people back into fellowship
Define:
Redemption
to buy back at a price
Define:
Imputation
to reckon, to charge to one’s account. Christ’s righteousness is imputed to believers.
What is the nature of the atonement? Discuss “penal substitutionary atonement”.
Galatians 3:13-14 = Christ became a curse for us that we may avoid the curse
2 Corinthians 5:21 = Christ became sin for us that we may receive declaration of righteousness from God.
What of Christ’s remains to be done?
The calling of the elect to salvation, his second coming, and the subsequent judgement of all the nations.
Were the Old Testament believers saved by Christ?
WCF 8.6
Promise of the Redeemer looked forward to by OT saints as we look back at the cross
Will any for whom Christ died be lost?
WCF 8.8
John 6:37
John 10:27-28
Romans 8
What is the ordo salutis? Support your answer from Scripture.
The traditional sequence of discussions of the different aspects of salvation:
Calling, Regeneration, Conversion, Justification, Adoption, Sanctification, Perseverance, Glorification.
"As God has appointed the elect to glory; so has he, by the eternal and most free pu1pose of his will, foreordained all the means thereunto. Therefore, they who are elected, being fallen in Adam are redeemed by Christ, are effectually called unto faith in Christ by his Spirit working in due season, are justified, adopted, sanctified and kept by his power, through faith, unto salvation, Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified and saved, but the elect only. "-WCF 3.6
How would you explain the plan of salvation to an unbeliever?
WHO IS GOD?
God IS HOLY: He is majestic and absolutely perfect in his character.
"Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord Almighty"-Isaiah 6:3
GOD IS JUST: God is so holy that he cannot even look upon sin.
"He does not leave the guilty unpunished"-Exodus 34: 7
GOD IS VERY LOVING: God's love prompted him to provide a way for man's relationship with himself to be restored.
"For God so lived the world that He gave His one and only Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life "-John 3:16
WHO IS MAN?
MAN IS SINFUL: Sin is breaking God's law or falling short of his perfection in thought, word or deed.
"For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God"-Romans 3:23
SIN'S PENALTY IS Death: This separation between God and man is so great that even man's best efforts cannot satisfy God's holiness and justice.
"For the wages of sin is death "-Romans 6:23
JUDGMENT IS CERTAIN: Because God is holy and just He must punish sin. And the penalty for sin is death. Spiritual death (separation from God) and physical death are not the only consequences of sin.
"Just as man is destined to die once, and after that to face judgement "-Hebrews 9:27
WHO IS CHRIST?
JESUS CHRIST DIED As A SUBSTITUTE FOR SINFUL MEN: Because Jesus, the Son of God, became a man and lived a perfect and sinless life, He was qualified to die as a substitute. The wrath of God, which in justice was reserved for sinful men, fell upon Jesus when He died on the cross.
"For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for the unrighteous, to bring you to God. He was put to death in the body but made alive by the Spirit "-1 Peter 3:18
WHAT IS YOUR RESPONSE?
MAN MUST RESPOND To THE GOOD NEWS. Jesus said that we must not only hear, but believe as well. To believe in Christ means to turn from your sin (repent) and personally trust him as Lord and Savior.
"I tell you the truth, whoever hears my word and believes Him who sent me has eternal life and will not be condemned; he has crossed over from death to life "-John 5:24
Define and defend (include Scripture proofs) the doctrine of "effectual calling.
WSC #31
2 Thess. 2:13-14
John 6:44
Rom. 8:29-30
Ez. 36:26-28
On what is God's decision to call a certain person based?
"This effectual call is of God's free and special grace alone, not from anything at all foreseen in man, who is altogether passive therein until, being quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit, he is thereby enabled to answer this call, and to embrace the grace offered and conveyed in it. "-WCF 10.2 'For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith-and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God-not by works, so that no one can boast. "-Ephesians 2:8,9 Romans 9:11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad-- in order that God's purpose in election might stand. . . . 16 It does not, therefore, depend on man's desire or effort, but on God's mercy.
How can infants be 'called'?
Elect infants who are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit. "Elect infants, dying in infancy, are regenerated and saved by Christ, through the Spirit, who works when, and where, and how he pleases: so also as all other elect persons who are incapable of being outwardly called by the ministry of the word. "-WCF 10.3
Can anyone not called by the Spirit be saved? Explain and defend (include Scripture proofs).
People may hear the gospel and have some response, but unless the Holy Spirit effectually calls them, they do not truly come to Christ and are not saved. 'Others, not elected, although they may be called by the ministry of the Word may have some common operations of the Spirit, yet they never truly come unto Christ, and therefore cannot be saved... ."-WCF 10.4 .'Not everyone who says to me Lord, Lord, will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of m Father who is in heaven. Many will say to me on that day, Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name, and your name drive out demons and perform many miracles? Then I will tell them plainly. I never knew you. Depart from me, you evil doers. "-Matthew 7:21-23 "No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day. "- John 6:44
Is Jesus really the only way of salvation? Explain and defend (include Scripture proofs).
Yes. "... much less can men, not professing the Christian religion, be saved in any other way whatsoever, be they never ~ so diligent to fame their lives according to the light of nature, and the laws of that religion they do profess. And to assert and maintain the they may, is very pernicious, and to be detested. "-WCF 10.4 "1 am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me. "-John 14:6 "Salvation is found in no one else, for there in no other name under heaven given to men by which we must be saved. "-Acts 4: 12
What about those who never had the chance to hear about Jesus?
It is not a person's ignorance which will condemn him before God, it is his sinfulness. "Others, not elected, although they may be called by the ministry of the Word may have some common operation" of the Spirit. yet they never truly come unto Christ. and therefore cannot be saved: much less can men, not professing the Christian religion, be saved in any other way whatsoever, be they never so diligent to fame their lives according to the light of nature, and the laws of that religion they do profess. And to assert and maintain that they may is very pernicious, and to be detested. "-WCF 10.4 "The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge. "-Psalm 19: 1-2 "... since what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities-his eternal power and divine nature-have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse. "-Romans 1:19-20
What about the sincere Buddhist (or Moslem, or Unitarian)?
There sincerity is commendable, but in the end we must declare that they are sincerely wrong.
Define and defend (include Scripture proofs) the doctrine of “justification”.
That gracious act of God in which he treats me "Just as if I'd never sinned and lived a perfect
life. "Justification is an act of God 's free grace, where he pardons all our sins, and accepts us as righteous in his sight only for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us, and received by faith alone. "-WSC 33 "..for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that comes by Christ Jesus. "-Romans 3:23-24 "I consider them rubbish, that I may gain Christ and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the Law, but that which is through faith in Christ-the righteousness that comes from God and is by faith. "-Philippians 3:8b, 9
What is the basis of justification?
The finished work of Christ credited to our account by faith "Those whom God effectually calls, He also freely justifies; not by infusing righteousness into them, but by accounting and accepting their persons as righteous; not for anything wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ's sake alone; nor by imputing faith itself, the act of believing or any other evangelical obedience to them, as their righteousness; but by imputing the obedience and satisfaction of Christ unto them, they receiving and resting on Him and His righteousness by faith; which faith they have not of themselves, it is the gift of God. "- WCF 11.1
Explain this statement: "Faith alone saves, but saving faith is never alone.”
Salvation is by faith alone, but true saving faith unites you to Christ and thus his Spirit conforms you after his image producing works of obedience. All saving faith will produce good fruit. "Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and his righteousness, is the alone instrument of justification: yet is not alone in the person justified, but is ever accompanied with all other saving graces, and is no dead faith, but works by love. "-WCF 11.2 "You see that a person is justified by what he does and not by faith alone. "-James 2:24
When is a Christian justified?
When the Holy Spirit applies the work of Christ to you by faith. (When he/she trusts in Christ)"God did, from all eternity decree to justify all the elect, and Christ did, in the fullness of time, die for their sins, and rise again for their justification: nevertheless, they are not justified, until the Holy Spirit does in due lime, actually apply Christ to them. "-WCF 11.4
"Therefore, there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus, because through Christ Jesus the Jaw of the Spirit of life set me free from the law of sin and death. "-Romans 8:1,2
What happens when a Christian sins after being justified?
They may fall under fatherly discipline and need to humble themselves asking for forgiveness. "God does continue to forgive the sins of those that are justified; and, although they can never fall from the slate of justification, yet they may, by their sins, fall under God's fatherly displeasure, and not have the light of His countenance restored unto them, until they humble themselves, confess their sins, beg pardon, and renew their faith and repentance. "-WCF 11.5
How were believers justified under the old covenant?
They looked forward, in faith, by grace, for send a Messiah to take away restore God’s favor, just as we look back in faith by grace.
"The justification of believers under the old testament was, in all these respects, one and the same with the justification of believers under the new testament. "-WCF 11.6 "What then shall we say that Abraham, our forefather, discovered in this matter? If in fact, Abraham was justified by works, he had something to boast about-but not before God. What does the Scripture say? Abraham believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness. "-Romans 4:1-3 "Now faith is being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do not see. This is what the ancients were commended for. ...These were all commended for their faith, yet none of them received what had been promised God had planned something better for us so that only together with us would they be made perfect. "-Hebrews 11:1-2,39-40
Define and defend (include Scripture proofs) the doctrine of “adoption”.
"Adoption is an act of God' s free grace where we are received into the number, and have a , right to all the privileges, of the sons of God."-WSC 34
"The Spirit testifies with our spirit that we are God's children. Now if we are children, then we are heirs-heirs of God and coheirs with Christ, if indeed we share in his sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory. "-Romans 8:17-18
Define and defend (include Scripture proofs) the doctrine of “sanctification.”
"Sanctification is the work of God's free grace, where we are renewed in the whole man after the image of God; and are enabled more and more to die to sin, and live to righteousness. "- WSC #35
" But we ought always to thank God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through the belief in the truth. He called you to this through our gospel, that you might share in the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. "-2 Thessalonians 2: 13-14
Romans 6; Romans 8:1-15
Can anyone become perfect (completely sanctified) in this life? Defend (include Scripture proofs).
No, “This sanctification is throughout the whole man; yet imperfect in this life, there abiding still Some remnants of corruption in every part; whence arises the continual and irreconcilable war, the flesh lusting against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh. "-WCF 13.2
Romans 7
What is saving faith? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Faith in Jesus Christ is a saving grace whereby we receive and rest upon him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel- WSC86
WCF 13.1- The grace of faith, whereby the elect are enabled to believe to the saving of their souls, is the work of the Spirit of Christ in their hearts, and is ordinarily wrought by the ministry of the Word by which also, and by the administration of the sacraments, and prayer, it is increased and strengthened.
John 1.12- “Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God…”
John 3.16- “ For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life…”
Philippians 3.8-9- “I consider them rubbish, that I may gain Christ and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but that which is through faith in Christ- the righteousness that comes from God and is by faith.”
Galatians 2.15-16- “man is not justified by observing the law, but by faith in Jesus Christ. So we, too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by observing the law, because by observing the law no one will be justified.
Where does saving faith come from? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Saving faith is worked in the heart by the Holy Spirit and the word of God. 2 Thessalonians 2.13 “But we ought to thank God for you brothers loved by the Lord, because from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth.”
Ephesians 2.8-9 “for it is by grace you have been saved, through faith- and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God- not by works, so that no one can boast.”
What does saving faith believe? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Believes whatever is taught in Scripture.
WCF 13.2 “By this faith, a Christian believes to be true whatever is revealed in the Word, for the authority of God himself speaking therein; and acts differently upon that which each particular passage thereof contains; yielding obedience to the commands, trembling at the threatening, and embracing the promises of God for this life, and that which is to come. But the principal acts of saving faith are accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone for justification, sanctification and eternal life, by virtue of the covenant of grace.”
John 5.24- “I tell you the truth, whoever hears my word and believes Him who sent me has eternal life and will not be condemned; he has crossed over from death to life.”
Romans 10.9- “That if you confess with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.”
Is all faith alike? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
No, there are degrees of weak and strong; saving and non-saving This faith is different, weak and strong; may be often and many ways assailed, and weakened, but gets the victory; growing up in many to the attainment of a full assurance, through Christ, who is both the author and finisher of our faith.- WCF 13.3
Hebrews 5.13-14- “Anyone who lives on milk, being still an infant, is not aquatinted with the teaching about righteousness. But solid food is for the mature, who by constant use have trained themselves to distinguish good from evil.
Matthew 6.30- “If that is how God clothes the grass of the field, which is here today and tomorrow is thrown into the fire, will he not much more clothe you, O you of little faith.”
James 2.19- “You believe that there is one God. Good! Even the demons believe that- and shudder.”
Define "repentance." Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Repentance unto life is a saving grace, whereby a sinner out of a true sense of his sin, and apprehension of the mercy of God in Christ, does with grief and hatred of his sin, turn from it, unto God with full purpose of and endeavor after new obedience. WSC #87
Acts 2.37-38 “When the people heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and the other apostles, “ Brothers, what shall we do? Peter replied, “Repent and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins.”
Joel 2.13-14 “Even now, declares the LORD, return to me with all your heart, with fasting and weeping and mourning. Rend your heart and not your garments. Return to the LORD your God, for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love, and he relents from sending calamity.”
In what sense is repentance "necessary?" Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Repentance is necessary in that no sinner may expect pardon without it.
WCF 15.3 “Although repentance is not to be rested in, as any satisfaction for sin, or any cause of the pardon thereof, which is the act of God’s free grace in Christ; it is of such necessity to all sinners, that none may expect pardon without it.
Luke 13.3 “I tell you, no! But unless you repent, you too will all perish.
Acts 17.30-31 “In the past God overlooked such ignorance, but now he commands all people everywhere to repent. For he has set a day when he will judge the world with justice by the man he has appointed. He has given proof of this to all men by raising him from the dead.
How ought we to confess our sins? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Specifically in public or private
WCF 15.5 Men ought not content themselves with a general repentance, but it is every man’s duty to endeavor to repent of his particular sins, particularly.
WCF 15.6 As every man is bound to make private confession of his sins to God, praying for the pardon thereof; upon which , and the forsaking of them, he shall find mercy; so, he that scandalizes his brother, or the church of Christ, ought to be willing, by public or private confession, and sorrow for his sin, to declare his repentance to those that are offended, who are thereupon to be reconciled to him, and in love to receive him.
Luke 19.8- But Zacchaeus stood up and said to the Lord, “Look, Lord! Here and now I give half of my possessions to the poor, and if I have cheated anybody out of anything, I will pay back four times the amount.
Proverbs 28.13 “He who conceals his sins does not prosper, but whoever confesses and renounces them finds mercy.
1 John 1.9 “ If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.
What are good works? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Good works are only such as God has commanded n His Holy Word, and not such as, without the warrant thereof, are devised by men out of blind zeal, or upon any pretense of good intention- WCF 16.1
Micah 6.8- He has showed you, O Man, what is good and what the Lord requires of you. To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God.
Hebrews 13.20-21- May the God of Peace, who through the blood of the eternal covenant brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, equip you with everything good for doing his will, and may he work in us what is pleasing to him, through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen
What is the relation of good works to faith? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Good works are the fruit of true faith.
WCF 16.2 These are good works, done in obedience to God’s commandments, are the fruit and evidences of a true and lively faith: and by them believers manifest their thankfulness, strengthen their assurance, edify their brethren, adorn the profession of the gospel, stop the mouths of the adversaries, and glorify God, whose workmanship they are, created in Christ Jesus thereunto, that , having their fruit unto holiness, they may have the end, eternal life.
James 2.18,22 But someone will say, You have faith but I have deeds. Show me your faith without deeds, and I will show you my faith by what I do. You see that his faith and his actions were working together, and his faith was made complete by what he did.
Ephesians 2.8-10- For we are saved by grace, through faith and this is not of ourselves it is a gift from God. We are God’s workmanship, created to do good works, which were prepared in advance for us.
Are good works necessary for salvation? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
No, They are a fruit of salvation
James 2.18,22 But someone will say, You have faith but I have deeds. Show me your faith without deeds, and I will show you my faith by what I do. You see that his faith and his actions were working together, and his faith was made complete by what he did.
Can our good works save us? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
NO
We cannot by our best works merit pardon of sin, or eternal life at the hand of God, by reason of the great disproportion that is between them and the glory to come; and the infinite distance that is between us and God, whom, by them, we can neither profit, nor satisfy for the debt of our former sins, but when we have done all we can, we have done but our duty, and are unprofitable servants: and because as they are good, they proceed from His Spirit; and as they are wrought by us, they are defiled, and mixed with so much weakness and imperfection, that they cannot endure the severity of God’s judgment- WCF 16.5
Romans 3.20- Therefore no will be declared righteous in his sight by observing the law; rather, through the law we become conscious of sin.
Ephesians 2.8-9 for it is by grace you have been saved, through faith-and this not from yourselves, it is a gift of God- not by works, so that no one can boast.
Titus 3.4-5 But when the kindness and love of God our savior appeared, he saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy.
Can unbelievers do good works? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
No, though unbelievers might do that which is perceived by fellow man to be good (and even commanded by God), the unbeliever's heart is so impure as that nothing untainted by sin may proceed from them, and therefore nothing which God considers good. Works done by unregenerate men, although for the matter of them they may be things which God commands; and of good use both to themselves and others: yet, because they proceed not from a heart purified by faith; nor are done in a right manner, according to the Word; nor to a right end, the glory of God, they are therefore sinful, and cannot please God, or make a man meet to receive grace from God: and yet, their neglect of them is more sinful and displeasing to God- WCF 16.7 Genesis 6.5- The Lord saw how great man’s wickedness on the earth had become, and that every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time. Jeremiah 17.9- The heart is deceitful above all things and beyond cure. Who can understand it? Romans 3.10-12 There is no one righteous, not even one; there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one. Romans 8.7,8 …The sinful mind is hostile to God. It does not submit to God’s law, nor can it do so. Those controlled by the sinful nature cannot please God. Ephesians 2.1-3 As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient. All of us also lived among them at one time, gratifying the cravings of the sinful nature and following its desires and thoughts. Like the rest we were by nature objects of wrath.
Define and defend (include Scripture proofs) the doctrine of "perseverance."
WCF 17.1- They, whom God has accepted in His Beloved, effectually called, and sanctified by His Spirit, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace, but shall certainly preserve therein to the end, and be eternally saved. John 6.44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day.
John 10.28 I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one can snatch them out of my hand.
Philippians 1.6 …being confident of this, he who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus. Romans 8.29-30 For those God foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of his son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. And those he predestined, he also called; those he called, he also justified; those he justified, he also glorified. 1 John 2.19 they went out from us, but they did not really belong to us. For if they had belonged to us, they would have remained with us, but their going showed that none of them belonged to us.
Can a saved person later be eternally lost? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
NO!
WLC #79 True believers, by reason of the unchangeable love of God, and his decree and covenant to give them perseverance, their inseparable union with Christ, his continual intercession for them, and the Spirit and seed of God abiding in them, can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace, but are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation
1 John 2.19 they went out from us, but they did not really belong to us. For if they had belonged to us, they would have remained with us, but their going showed that none of them belonged to us.
John 10:28 I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one can snatch them out of my hand
John 6:44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day
Philippians 1:6 …being confident of this, he who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus. Romans 8:29-30 For those God foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the likeness of his son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. And those he predestined, he also called; those he called, he also justified; those he justified, he also glorified.
On what does a believer's persevering depend? Defend with Scripture proofs.
The immutability of God’s free election of them in Christ.
WCF 17.2 This perseverance of the saints depends not upon their own free will, but upon the immutability of the decree of God’s free election, flowing from the free and unchangeable love of God the Father; upon the efficacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ, the abiding of the Spirit, and the seed of God with them, and the nature of the covenant of grace: from all which arises also the certainty and infallibility thereof.
John 10.28 I give them eternal life, and they shall never perish; no one can snatch them out of my hand
John 6.44 No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up in the last day
Philippians 1.6 …being confident of this, he who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus.
Can a person be sure he is saved? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Yes,
Such as truly believe in Christ, and endeavor to walk in all good conscience before him, may without extraordinary revelation, by faith grounded upon the truth of God’s promises, and only by the Spirit enabling them to discern in themselves those graces to which the promises of life are made, and bearing witness with their spirits that they are the children of God, be infallibly assured that they are in the estate of grace, and shall persevere therein unto salvation- WLC #80
1 John 5.13- I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life.
Romans 8.16- The Spirit himself testifies with your spirit that we are God’s children
Should a person be sure he is saved? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
WCF 18.3- …And therefore it is the duty of everyone to give all diligence to make his calling and election sure, that thereby his heart may be enlarged in peace and joy in the Holy Spirit, in love and thankfulness to God, and in strength and cheerfulness in the duties of obedience, the proper fruits of this assurance; so far is it from inclining men to looseness
1 John 5.13 I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life
2 Peter 1.10-11 Therefore, my brothers, be all the more eager to make your calling and election sure. For if you do these things, you will never fall, and you will receive a rich welcome into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ
How could a person know he is saved? On what could such assurance be based?
• By examining one’s heart to see if one has true belief
• By clinging to God’s promises
• By the Spirit’s testimony
• Disciple – tells us that we are children of God (Hebrews 12)
• Good works- know them by their fruit(Matt 7.16-17)
• Love for our brothers (1 John 3.14)
WLC #80 Such as truly believe in Christ, and endeavor to walk in all good conscience before him, may without extraordinary revelation, by faith grounded upon the truth of God’s promises, and only by the Spirit enabling them to discern in themselves those graces to which the promises of life are made, and bearing witness with their spirits that they are the children of God, be infallibly assured that they are in the estate of grace, and shall persevere therein unto salvation- WLC #80
What should a person do who lacks assurance of salvation?
Avail oneself to the means of grace
WSC #88 The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of redemption are his ordinances, especially the word, sacraments, and prayer; all which are made effectual to the elect for salvation.
2 Peter 1:10-11 Therefore, my brothers, be all the more eager to make your calling and election sure. For if you do these things, you will never fall, and you will receive a rich welcome into the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
What is the moral law?
• The declaration of God's will directing and binding everyone to conformity and obedience to it.
• "The rule of obedience revealed to Adam in the estate of innocence, and to all mankind in him, besides a special command not to eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, was the moral law."-WLC 92
• “The moral law is the declaration of the will of God to mankind, directing and binding everyone to personal, perfect, and perpetual conformity and obedience there unto, in the frame and disposition of the whole man, soul and body, and in performance of all those duties of holiness and righteousness which he owes to God and man: promising life upon the fulfilling, and threatening death upon the breach of it.”-WLC 93
What laws besides the moral law did God give his people under the Old Covenant?
• The ceremonial law and the judicial (civil) law.
• "Besides the law, commonly called moral, God was pleased to give to the people of Israel, as a church under age, ceremonial laws, containing several typical ordinances, pa11ly of worship, prefiguring Christ, His graces, actions, sufferings, and benefits; and partly holding forth diverse instructions of moral duties. All which ceremonial laws are now abrogated, under the new testament. "-WCF 19.3
• "To them also, as a body politic, He gave sundry judicial laws, which expired together with the State of that people; not obliging any other now, further than the general equity there of may require. "-WCF 19.4
Are believers under obligation to the law today? Explain and defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• While believers are no longer under the law to be justified or condemned by it, it remains for them the rule of life, informing them of the will of God which they are to obey.
• The moral law forever binds all, though it is by no means a way to merit salvation, which only come through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ as he is freely offered in the gospel.
• “Although true believers be not under the law, as a covenant of works, to be thereby justified, or condemned; yet is it of great use to them, as well as to others; in that, as a rule of life informing them of the will of God, and their duty, it directs and binds them to walk accordingly; discovering also the sinful pollutions of their nature, hearts, and lives; so as, examining themselves thereby, they may come to further conviction of, humiliation for, and hatred against sin, together with a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ, and the perfection of His obedience.” – WCF 19.6
• "The moral law does forever bind all, as well justified persons as others, to the obedience thereof; and that, not only in regard to the matter contained in it, but also in respect of the authority of God the Creator, who gave it. Neither does Christ, in the Gospel, any way dissolve, but much strengthens this obligation. "-WCF 19.5
• "Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for he who loves his fellow man has fulfilled the law. The commandments, 'Do not commit adultery, Do not murder, Do not steal, Do not covet,' and whatever other commandment there may be, are summed up in this one rule: 'Love your neighbor as yourself.' Love does no harm to its neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law."-Romans 13:8-10
• "Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. Honor your father and mother-which is the first commandment with a promise--that it may go well with you and that you may enjoy long life on the earth "- Ephesians 6:1-3
• "We know that we have come to know him if we obey his commands. The man who says, 'I know him, " but does not do what he commands is a liar, and the truth is not in him. "-1 Jn 2:3,4
• "Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them. I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished."-Matthew 5:17-18
What is "theonomy?" Evaluate it biblically.
• Theonomy in its simplest definition means “God’s Law.”
• Theonomy encompasses a fairly broad spectrum of views about the exercise, and authority to exercise the civil, social, and religious laws of the Mosaic Law and the legal system of the Old Testament theocracy of the nation of Israel.
• “All laws of the Old Testament were equitable for the era for which they were designed. But great care must be taken to determine precisely how they apply to the present era.” – PP, 556
• Matthew 5:17-18 (see above)
• “When you build a new house, you shall make a parapet for your roof, that you may not bring bloodguilt on your house if anyone falls from it. – Deuteronomy 22:8
• In John 4, Jesus could have carried out Lev. 20:10 by putting the adulteress to death (or insisting she be put to death), but instead he reveals himself as the messiah. This incidence illustrates Jesus’ pattern with respect to the judicial laws. His emphasis in ushering in the kingdom is on the redemptive nature of the gospel; there will come a time when he will carry out the retributive justice of the Law.
Where is the law of God summed up?
The ten commandments-Love God and love your neighbor.
• "The moral law is summarily comprehended in the Ten Commandments."-WSC #41
• "He answered: 'Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind'; and; 'Love your neighbor as yourself "-Luke 10:27
Can believers keep God's law? Explain and defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• Yes and no. We are empowered by the Holy Spirit to do good, nonetheless, we cannot fulfill the law perfectly.
• "No mere man since the fall is able in this life perfectly to keep the commandments of God, but does daily break them in thought, word and deed. "-WSC #82
• "There is not a righteous man on earth who does what is right and never sins. "-Ecclesiastes 7:20
• "There is no one righteous, not even one; there is no one who understands, no one who seeks God. All have turned away, they have together become worthless; there is no one who does good, not even one. "-Romans 3:10-12
• "If we claim to be without sin, we deceive ourselves and the truth is not in us ...If we claim we have not sinned, We make him out to be a liar and his word has no place in our lives. "-1 John 1:8,10
• "For the sinful nature desires what is contrary to the Sprit, and the Spirit what is contrary to the sinful nature. They are in conflict with each other, so that you do not do what you want. "-Galatians 5: 17
What is at stake in the current "Lordship Controversy?" Explain and defend your view.
• The unity of the person of Christ. Christ is both Lord and savior in union of person
• The "Lordship controversy" has implications for the nature of regeneration, assurance, and salvation as well as the question of who or what will be the sovereign over our life.
• Jesus Christ is indeed Lord (King) and this must be acknowledged for true saving faith
• “That if you confess with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved” - Romans 10:9
• James 2 teaches that true faith must manifest itself in works of obedience to the King, Jesus. That is not to say that we earn or in any way merit salvation, it is completely a gracious gift of the God who predestines, elects, regenerates, and sacrifice.
• Christ is and must be received as the Lord as well as the Savior of the believer.
What are the "means of grace?"
• Word, Sacraments, and Prayer
• The ways by which God's grace is extended and received by humans. In Protestant theology, the emphasis has been on the Word and Sacraments as God's instituted means of conveying the grace that leads to justification - sanctification.
• "The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of redemption, are his ordinances, especially the Word, sacraments, and prayer; all which are made effectual to the elect for salvation. "-WSC #88
• "Those who accepted his message were baptized...They devoted themselves to the apostles teaching and to fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer. "-Acts 2:41,42
• "Therefore go and make disciples of all nations baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age. "-Matthew 28:19-20
What is "Christian Liberty?" Explain and defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• "The freedom of the Christian, on the basis of the work of Jesus Christ by the Holy Spirit, to
be free from the power of sin.
• "The liberty which Christ has purchased for believers under the gospel consists in their freedom from the guilt of sin, the condemning wrath of God, the curse of the moral law; and, in their being delivered from this present evil world, bondage to Satan, and dominion of sin; from the evil of afflictions, the sting of death, the victory of the grave, and everlasting damnation; as also, in their free access to God, and their yielding obedience unto him, not out of slavish fear, but a child-like love and willing mind. All which were common also to believers under the law. But, under the new testament, the liberty of Christians is further enlarged, in their freedom from the yoke of the ceremonial law, to which the Jewish church was subjected; and in greater boldness of access to the throne of grace, and in fuller communications of the free Spirit of God, than believers under the law did ordinarily partake of."-WCF 20.1
• "You have been set free from sin, and have become slaves to righteousness….But now that you have been set free from sin and have become slaves to God, the benefit you reap leads to holiness, and the result is eternal life."-Romans 6:18-22
• "Live as free men, but do not use your freedom as a cover-up for evil; live as servants of God. Show proper respect to everyone: Love the brotherhood of believers, fear God, honor the king. .'-1 Peter 2:16-17
• "Everything is permissible-but not everything is beneficial. Everything is permissible-but not everything is constructive. Nobody should seek his own good, but the good of others. "-1 Corinthians 10:23-24
• "Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. "-2 Corinthians 3:17
Who or what is Lord of the conscience? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• God alone.
• "God alone is Lord of the conscience, and has left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men, which are, in anything, contrary to His Word; or beside it, in matters of faith, or worship. So that, to believe such doctrines, or obey such commands, out of conscience, is to betray the liberty of conscience: and the requiring of an implicit faith, and an absolute and blind obedience, is to destroy liberty of conscience, and reason also. WCF 20.2
• "There is only one Lawgiver and Judge, the one who is able to save and destroy. But you-who are you to judge your neighbor? "-James 4:12
• "Who are you to judge someone else's servant? To his own master he stands or falls. And he will stand for the Lord is able to make him stand. "-Romans 14:4
• "Eat anything sold in the meat market without raising questions of the conscience, for, The earth is the Lord's and everything in it. "-1 Corinthians 10:25-26
How does Christian liberty bear on the Christian's obligation to the state?
• Since God intends our liberty, not to destroy, but to uphold the powers which he has ordained; we are to submit to the state.
• “And because the powers which God has ordained, and the liberty which Christ has purchased, are not intended by God to destroy, but mutually uphold and preserve one another, they who, upon pretense of Christian liberty, shall oppose any lawful power, or the lawful exercise of it, whether it be civil or ecclesiastical, resist the ordinance of God...” -WCF 20.4
What is the "regulative principle?" Defend from Scripture.
• The principle that the manner in which we worship God should be in accordance with what he has instituted himself in his revealed will-the Scriptures.
• "...But the acceptable way of worshipping the true God is instituted by Himself, and so limited by His own revealed will, that He may not be worshipped according to the imaginations and devises of men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation, or any other way not prescribed in the holy Scripture. "-WCF 21.1
• "See to it that you do all I command you; do not add to it or take away from it "-Deuteronomy 12:32
• "The Lord says: These people come near to me with their mouth and honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. Their worship of me is made up only of rules taught by men. "-Isaiah
29:13
• "They worship me in vain; their teachings are but rules taught by men."-Matthew 15:9
Who is to be worshipped? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit and Him alone.
"Religious worship is to be given to God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit, and to Him alone; not to angels, saints, or any other creature: and, since the fall, not without a Mediator; nor in the mediation of any other but of Christ alone. "-WCF 21.2
• "And Jesus said to him, Away from me, Satan! For it is written: Worship the Lord your God, and serve him only. "-Matthew 4:10
What are the ordinary parts or elements of worship?
• Reading of Scripture, preaching and hearing the Word, singing, administration of the sacraments.
• "The reading of the Scriptures with godly fear, the sound preaching and conscionable hearing of the Word, in obedience unto God, with understanding, faith and reverence, singing of psalms with grace in the heart; as also due administration and worthy receiving of the sacraments instituted by Christ, are all parts of the ordinary religious worship of God: beside religious oaths, vows, solemn fastings, and thanksgivings upon special occasions, which are, in their several times and seasons, to be used in an holy and religious manner. "-WCF 21.5
Are Christians under obligation to keep a Sabbath? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• Yes.
• “As it is the law of nature, that in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in His Word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment binding all men in all ages, He has particularly appointed one day in seven, for a Sabbath, to be kept holy to him: which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week, and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week, which, in Scripture, is called the Lord's Day, and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian Sabbath. "-WCF 21.7
• "Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array. By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing; so on the seventh day he rested from all his work. And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it he rested from all the work of creating that he had done. Genesis 2:1-3
• "Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work. But the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gates. For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy. "-Exodus 20:8-11
• "Bear in mind that the Lord has given you the Sabbath; that is why on the sixth day he gives you bread for two days. Everyone is to stay where he is on the seventh day; no one is to go out. So the people rested on the seventh day. "-Exodus 16:29-30
• "The LORD said to Moses, Say to the Israelites, you must observe my Sabbaths. This will be a sign between me and you for the generations to come, so you may know that I am the Lord, who makes you holy. Observe the Sabbath, because it is holy to you. Anyone who desecrates it must be put to death; whoever does any work on that day must be cut off from his people. For six days, work is to be done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, holy to the Lord. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day must be put to death. The Israelites are to observe the Sabbath, celebrating it for the generations to come as a lasting covenant. It will be a sign between me and the Israelites forever, for in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day he abstained from work and rested. "-Exodus 31:12-17
• "If because of the Sabbath, you turn your foot from doing your own pleasure on my holy day, and call the Sabbath a delight, the holy day of the Lord honorable, and honor it, desisting from your own ways, from seeking your own pleasure and speaking your own word, then you will take delight in the Lord, and I will make you ride on the heights of the earth; and I will feed you with the heritage of Jacob your father, for the mouth of the Lord has spoken."-Isaiah 58:13-14
If so, how should the Sabbath be kept? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• By rest, worship, deeds of piety, deeds of mercy, healing, and goodness, and if need be that of necessity.
• "This Sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs before-hand, do not only observe an holy rest, all that day, from their own works, words, and thoughts about the worldly employments and recreations, but also are taken up, the whole time, in the public, and private exercises of His worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy. "-WCF 21.8
• "Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh I day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work. Neither you, nor your son or daughter, "c nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gales. For in six days the Lord " made the heavens and the ea11h, the sea, and all that is them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy. "-Exodus 20:8-11
• "If because of the Sabbath, you turn your foot from doing your own pleasure on my holy day, and call the Sabbath a delight, the holy day of the Lord honorable, and honor it, desisting from your own ways, from seeking your own pleasure and speaking your own word, then you will take delight in the Lord, and I will make you ride on the heights of the earth; and I will feed you with the heritage of Jacob your father, for the mouth of the Lord has spoken."-Isaiah 58:13-14

• And He said to them, “What man shall there be among you, who shall have one sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will he not take hold of it, and lift it out? Of how much more value then is a man than a sheep! So then, it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.” .- Mathew12:11-12
• 'Then he said to them. The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. .'-Mark 2:27
• "Now if a child can be circumcised on the Sabbath so that the law of Moses may not be broken, why are you angry with me for healing the whole man on the Sabbath? Stop judging by mere appearances, and make a right judgement. -John 7:23-24
Differentiate between the "Continental" and "Westminster" views of the Sabbath.
• The continental view of Sabbath (espoused by Calvin) stresses the ceremonial and typological view of the Jewish Sabbath.
• The Westminster views the Sabbath as a creation mandate and therefore moral and universal in scope.
Should a Christian ever take an oath or vow? Explain. Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• The taking of oaths for a Christian is permissible, yet they can never be contrary to the Word.
• A lawful oath consists in calling upon God, the occasion being of sufficient seriousness and importance, to witness the truth of what we affirm as true, or our voluntary assumption of an obligation to do something in the future. Hence an oath is an act of supreme religious worship, since it recognizes the omnipresence, omniscience, absolute justice and sovereignty of the Person whose august witness is invoked, and whose judgement is appealed to as final. –
A. A. Hodge.
• "... Yet, as in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the Word of God, under the new testament as well as under the old; so lawful oath, being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters, ought to be taken. "-WCF 22.2
•"Men swear by someone greater than themselves, and the oath confirms what is said and puts an end to all argument. "-Hebrews 6:16
• "I call God as my witness that it was in order to spare you that I did not return to Corinth. "-2 Corinthians 1:23
• "You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name. "-Exodus 20: 7
What should be our attitude toward civil authorities? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• God has places the civil magistrates under his authority and over his people for his own glory and the public good.
• “God, the supreme Lord and King of all the world, has ordained civil magistrates, to be under Him, over the people, for His own glory, and the public good: and, to this end, has armed them with the power of the sword, for the defense and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil doers.” -WCF 23.1
• "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's and to God the things that are God's. "-Matthew 22:21
• "Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgement on themselves. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right and he will commend you. For he is God's servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid; for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God's servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not on/y because of possible punishment but also because of conscience. " - Romans 13: 1-5
• "Therefore submit yourself to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake, whether to the king as supreme, or to governors, as to those who are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers and for the praise of those who do good. "-1 Peter 2:13-14
What is the relationship between church and state?
• Civil government has the right and responsibility to protect the church, while not being allowed to intervene in ecclesiastical matters or abridging church government.
•"The civil magistrate may not assume to himself the administration of the Word and sacraments, or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven; or in the least, interfere in matters of faith. Yet, as nursing fathers, it is the duty of the civil magistrates to protect the Church of our common Lord, without giving the preference to any denomination of Christians above the rest, in such a manner that al1 ecclesiastical persons whatever shal1 enjoy the full, free, and unquestioned liberty of discharging every part of their functions without violence or danger. And, as Jesus Christ has appointed a regular government and discipline in his Church, no law of any commonwealth should interfere with, let, or hinder, the due exercise thereof, among the voluntary members of any denomination of Christians, according to their own profession and belief. It is the duty of civil magistrates to protect the person and good name of al1 their people, in such an effectual manner as that no person be suffered, either upon pretense of religion or of infidelity, to offer any indignity, violence, abuse, or injury to any other person whatsoever: and to take order, that al1 religious and ecclesiastical assemblies be held without molestation or disturbance. "-WCF 23.3 [American Form 1789]
What are the proper duties of civil authorities? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• To protect the church, prevent interference with church government, protect persons and their good name, to provide freedom of religion, and to guarantee the freedom of assembly
• WCF 23.3 [American Form 1789] (see above)
• Romans 13: 1-5 (see above)
•"First of all, then, I urge that entreaties and prayers, petitions and thanksgivings be made on behalf of all men, for kings and all who are in authority, so that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and dignity. "-1 Timothy 2:2
What obligations do believers have to civil authorities? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
•Pray for magistrates, honor their persons, pay them tribute/other dues, obey lawful commands, and be subject to their authority .
• “It is the duty of people to pray for magistrates, to honor their persons, to pay them tribute or other dues, to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority, of conscience's sake. Infidelity, or difference in religion, does not free the people from their due obedience to them: from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted, much less has the Pope any power and jurisdiction over therein their dominions, or over any of their people; and, least of all, to deprive them of their dominions, or lives, if he shall judge them to be heretics, or upon any other pretense whatsoever.”-WCF 23.4
• 1 Timothy 2:2 (see above)
• “Wherefore it is necessary to be in subjection, not only because of wrath, but also for conscience‘ sake. For because of this you also pay taxes, for rulers are servants of God, devoting themselves to this very thing. Render to all what is due them: tax to whom tax is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.” Romans 13:5-7
By whom and for what purpose was marriage designed? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• Marriage is for one man and one woman for their mutual help, the increase of mankind and to prevent uncleanness.
• "Marriage is to be between one man and one woman: neither is it lawful for any man to have more than one wife, nor for any woman to have more than one husband, at the same time. "-WCF 24.1
• “Marriage was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife, for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue, and of the church with an holy seed; and for preventing uncleanness. "-WCF 24.2
• "The LORD God said, it is not good for man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him ...For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and they will become one flesh. "-Genesis 2:18,24
• "But since there is so much immorality, each man should have his own wife, and each wife her own
husband ...But if they cannot control themselves, they should marry, for it is better to marry than to bum with passion. "-1 Corinthians 7:2,9
• Marriage is for one man and one woman for their mutual help, the increase of mankind and to prevent uncleanness.
• "Marriage is to be between one man and one woman: neither is it lawful for any man to have more than one wife, nor for any woman to have more than one husband, at the same time. "-WCF 24.1
• “Marriage was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife, for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue, and of the church with an holy seed; and for preventing uncleanness. "-WCF 24.2
• "The LORD God said, it is not good for man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him ...For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and they will become one flesh. "-Genesis 2:18,24
• "But since there is so much immorality, each man should have his own wife, and each wife her own
husband ...But if they cannot control themselves, they should marry, for it is better to marry than to bum with passion. "-1 Corinthians 7:2,9
Who may (and may not) lawfully be married? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• All sorts of people who are able to give their consent-with Christians being exhorted to marry only in the Lord.
• "It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry, who are able with judgement to give their consent. Yet it is the duty of Christians to many only in the Lord... "-WCF 24.3
• "Marriage should be honored by all, and the marriage bed kept pure, for God will judge the adulterer and all the sexually immoral. "-Hebrews 13:4
• "A woman is bound to her husband as long as he lives. But if her husband dies, she is free to many anyone she wishes, but he must belong 10 the Lord. "-1 Corinthians 7:39
• "Do not be unequally yoked together with unbelievers..."-2 Corinthians 6: 14
What is divorce?
• Dissolving the marriage bond.
• "Adultery or fornication committed after a contract, being detected before marriage, gives just occasion to the innocent party to dissolve that contract. In the case of adultery after marriage, it is lawful for the innocent party to sue out a divorce: and, after the divorce, to marry another, as if the offending party were dead. "-WCF 24.5
Under what circumstances is divorce permissible? Defend your answer with Scripture.
• Adultery and willful desertion
• WCF 24.5 (see above)
• “Although the corruption of man be as such as is apt to study arguments unduly to put asunder those whom God has joined together in marriage: yet, nothing but adultery, or such willful desertion as can no way be remedied by the Church, or civil magistrate, is cause sufficient of dissolving the bond of marriage: wherein, a public and orderly course of proceeding is to be observed, and the persons concerned in it not left to their own will, and discretion, in their own case. "-WCF 24.6
• “It has been said, anyone who divorces his wife must give her a certificate of divorce. But I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife, except for marital unfaithfulness, causes her to become an adulteress, and anyone who marries the divorced woman commits adultery.” -Mathew 5:31-32
• “I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife, except for marital unfaithfulness, and marries another woman commits adultery.” - Matthew 19:9
• “But if the unbeliever leaves, let him do so. A believing man or woman is not bound in such circumstances; God has called us to live in peace. " - 1 Corinthians 7: 15
Is divorce an option for those abused by their spouses (physically or otherwise)? Defend.
• In cases where it can in "no way be remedied by the Church, or civil magistrates" (WCF 24.6) the guilty party has in effect willfully abandoned the other party. They have willfully broken the covenant that binds them and have split the unity of their flesh. However this would be a last resort situation and would not be considered until all other options have been exhausted. I want to defend the biblical principles of marriage, but not at the expense of doing good and showing charity.
May those who have been divorced remarry? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
• Those who have been divorced on biblical grounds are free to remarry .
• WCF 24.5 (see above)
• Matthew 19.9 (see above)
• "For example, by law a married woman is bound to her husband as long as he is alive, but if her husband dies, she is released from the law of marriage. So then, if she marries another man while her husband is still alive, she is called an adulteress. But if her husband dies, she is released from the law and is not an adulteress, even though she marries another man. "-Romans 7:2-3
What is the universal or catholic church?
-“The catholic or universal church, which is invisible, consists of the whole number of Christ’s elect, that have been, are , or shall be gathered into one, under Christ the Head thereof.” (WCF 25.1)
- The same answer is given is slightly abbreviated form in WLC #64.
What is the visible church?
-“The visible church consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion and of their children.” (WCF 25.2)
-See also WLC #62
What are the attributes of the church? Prove from Scripture.
-Holy: set apart from unbelief and sin; dedicated to the service of God
1 Peter 2:9-10 “You are . . . a holy nation”
Ephesians 5: 25-27 “Christ loved the church . . . to make her holy”
-Catholic: not limited ethnically nor spatially (as in the case of Israel) but rather unifies “all those throughout the world who profess the true religion”.
Ephesians 4:4-6 “There is one body . . .”
-Apostolic: founded upon the authority and teachings of the apostles
Ephesians 2:19-20 “built on the foundation of the apostles and the prophets, with Christ Jesus as the chief cornerstone”.
What are the marks of the church?
-Preaching of the Word
-Proper administration of the sacraments
-Exercise of church discipline
-Acts 2:42-44
Who is the head of the church?
- Jesus Christ
- Ephesians 2:19-20 “Christ Jesus is the chief cornerstone”
- “There is no other head of the church but the Lord Jesus Christ. Nor can the pope of Rome, in any sense, be the head thereof.”
- Ephesians 1:22 “appointed him to be head over everything”
- Colossians 1:18 “he is the head of the body, the church”
Define three basic forms of church government.
Episcopal (Prelacy, Monarchial) asserts that Christ has given administration of his church, directly and exclusively to an order of bishops, who form the line of succession from the apostles themselves. These bishops are separate, independent, and self-perpetuating. The actual people of the church have no share in the governance of the church.
Congregational (Independent, Democratic) maintains that each individual church is a complete church. There is no dependency upon other churches. The balance of power does not rest in a bishop but rather it lies with the members of the church and their officers elected as functionaries. These churches may choose to join together in fellowship; however, the decisions rendered are only advisory and not authoritative for any individual church unless the congregation so desires.
Presbyterian (Republican) government affirms both Christ as the head of the church and the importance of individual churches to govern their own affairs. It is accomplished through representative bodies. The local church session is the most basic. The regional presbytery is a assembly of the elders from the local congregations in a specified area. The next level extends to the national level with synods and general assemblies. The larger assemblies do have the power to impose certain limitations on the autonomy of local churches at the same time as they seek to promote the growth and welfare of churches, to guarantee the rights of its members, and to give fuller expression to the overall unity of the Church universal.
What are the principles of Presbyterian church government? Support your answer from Scripture.
•Christ is the King and Head of the church (Ephesians 1:22)
•The office bearers were chosen by the people (Acts 1:21-26)
•The office of bishop and elder are identical (Titus 1:5-7)
•In each church there was a plurality of elders (Philippians 1:1, Acts 14:23, 20:17, I Timothy 5:17)
•Ordination was an act of the presbytery, that plurality of elders (I Timothy 4:14 Acts 6:6 and 13:1-3)
•The privilege of appeal was to the assembly of elders, and they exercised the right of government in their corporate character. (Acts 15)
What is the role of women in the church? Support from the Scriptures.
•Women should be welcomed to fulfill any duty a non-ordained member of the church is permitted to perform. Women are a crucial and significant part of the church, just as any other member of the church, in possession of the full rights of the children of God. Women should seek to use their gifts in a manner that edifies and encourages the body of Christ. The one role that the Scriptures forbid that a woman should have is that of authority over a man, which the PCA interprets to mean, not holding an ordained office in the church. (I Timothy 2:12)
•Women should be encouraged to make their own contribution to the life and well-being of the church within the parameters outlined in the Bible. Certainly evangelism, discipleship and teaching of other women, compassionate service, leaders in children ministries, and many other roles are excellent avenues through which women may exercise their gifts for the building of the church and the kingdom of God.
May women serve as officers in the church? Support your answer from Scripture.
-Women may not hold an ordained office in the church.
-I Timothy 2:12-13
- Ephesians 5:22
What is “subscription”?
-Subscription refers to the vow of a church officer to submit himself to the system of doctrine and the confessional standards of the PCA, as outlined in the Westminster Confession of Faith. There are four possible views surrounding the issue: The substance of doctrine view, the vital to the system view, the very doctrine of the Word view, and the very word of doctrine view.
-The disagreement over this issue stems from the candidate’s need to determine what his oath to the second ordination vow entails for him and the session/presbytery’s need to be satisfied that the candidate’s answer does not allow him to hold a view that destroys the unity of the system of doctrine established as the standard for the PCA.
-The “vital to the system view” maintains that a session must determine if a scruple expressed by a candidate as an exception affects any of the articles essential tot he system.
-The “very doctrines of the Word” position asserts that the WCF and its catechisms are the expression of the very doctrines of the Word. Therefore, scruples are limited to the exceptions taken over the exact wording of a proposition. They cannot question the substance of any part of the documents.
-The “substance of doctrine” and the “very word of doctrine” views have fatal flaws. The substance of doctrine removes the distinctiveness of the Westminster standards, and the very word of doctrine elevates the standards to the level of scripture itself, ignoring that it is subordinate to the Bible.
What privileges do Christians share?
-We enjoy “Fellowship with Christ” and “Union with one another in love” (WCF 26.1)
- I John 1:2-3 “We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard, so that you also may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ.”
What duties do Christians owe one another?
-Holy Fellowship
-Communion in worship
-Mutual edification
-Relieving of our outward needs
-WCF 26.2
Does the “communion of the saints” deny the right of private property? Explain.
-“Nor does their communion one with another, as saints, take away or infringe upon the title or propriety which each man has in his goods and possessions.” WCF 26.3
-Scripture teaches that Christians can own property and exercise control over it.
-Ephesians 4:28 “doing something useful with his hands that he may have something to share with those in need.”
-Acts 5:4 “Didn’t it belong to you before it was sold? And after it was sold, wasn’t the money at your disposal?”
What authority does the church possess?
-They possess the “keys to the kingdom”
-They possess the power “to retain and remit sins”
-They have the power “to shut the kingdom to the impenitent” and “open the kingdom to penitent sinners.”
-WCF 30.2
What is the purpose of church censures?
-For the purpose of “reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren” . . .
-for deterring others from like offenses . . .
-for vindicating the honor of Christ and the holy profession of the gospel . . .
-for preventing the wrath of God from falling on the church for notorious and obstinate offender
- WCF 30.3
What censures may the church impose?
- Admonition
-Suspension from the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper for a season
-Excommunication from the church
-WCF 30.4
Identify some Scripture passages, which support the practice of church discipline.
-Matthew 18: 15-17 = biblical confrontation
-Titus 3:10 = warn a divisive person twice before having nothing to do with him
- 2 Thessalonians 3:14 = if someone doesn’t obey the apostle’s instruction, warn him as a brother.
-Galatians 6:1 = if anyone is caught in a sin, restore him gently
- 1 Cor 5:12-13 = expel the wicked man from among you
Who may properly call church assemblies, synods, or councils?
-“It belongs to the overseers and other rulers of the particular churches, by virtue of their offices, and the power which Christ has given them for edification and not for destruction, to appoint such assemblies; and to convene together in then as often as they judge it expedient for the good of the church.” WCF 31.1
- The main point underlying this passage is that the civil magistrate cannot convene a synod or assembly
For what purposes are church assemblies, synods, or councils called?
-to determine controversies of faith
-to set down rules and directions for the better ordering of the public worship of God
-to receive complaints and to determine them authoritatively
-WCF 31.2
What authority do church councils possess?
-Ecclesiastical and not Civil. Ministerial rather than Declarative.
-“Synods and councils are to handle or to conclude nothing but that which is ecclesiastical: and are not to intermediate with civil affairs which concern the commonwealth, unless by way of humble petition in cases extraordinary; or, by way of the advice, for the satisfaction of conscience, if they be thereunto required by the civil magistrate.” WCF 31.4
How should Christians respond to church councils?
-they are not the rule of faith and practice- that is the Bible.
-they are intended to be a help in both faith and practice
-WCF 31.3
What happens to believers at death? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
"The souls do believers are at their death made perfect in holiness, and do immediately pass into glory and their bodies, being still united to Christ, do rest in their graves, till the resurrection.” WSC #37 "Now we know that if the earthly tent we live in is destroyed, we have a building from God, an eternal house in heaven, not built by human hands. . . .Therefore we are always confident and know that as long as we are at home in the body we are away from the Lord... We are confident, I say. and would prefer to be away from the body and at home with the Lord. "-2 Corinthians 5:1,6,8 "Jesus answered him. I tell you the truth, today you will be with me in paradise. .'-Luke 23:43
What happens to unbelievers at death? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
They are cast into hell. "...And the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torments and utter darkness, reserved to the judgment of the great day ..."-WCF 32.1 "And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their own home-these he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day." Jude 6-7 "... through whom also he went and preached to the spirits in prison. "-1 Peter 3:19
Who will be raised to life at the last day?
The unjust and just alike. "The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised to dishonor: the bodies of the just, by His Spirit, unto honor; and be made conformable to His own glorious body. "-WCF 32.3 "Do not be amazed at this, for a time is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice and come out--those who have done good will rise to live, and those who have done evil will rise to be condemned. "-John. 5:28-29
Who will be judged at the last day? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
The apostate angels and all persons who have walked the earth.
WCF 33.1
Jude 1:6-7
Jude 1:14-15
By whom will they be judged? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
By Jesus Christ.
WCF 33.1
Acts 17:31
Will any receive a second chance? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
No, man is destined to die once, and after that to face judgment.
Heb. 9:27
John 8:24
What practical use is the doctrine of the final judgment? Include Scripture proofs.
•Deters men from sin
•Consoles the godly facing adversity; shakes off carnal security; creates a watchfulness
WCF 33.3
2 Cor. 5:10
When will Christ return? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
No one knows. "No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son.
Matt. 24:36
Matt. 24:42-43
What will heaven be like? Scripture clearly represents heaven as a place.
Christ ascended to heaven, which can only mean the he went from one place to another. It is described as the house of our Father, with many mansions (John 14:1), and this description would hardly fit a condition. Moreover believers are said to be within and unbelievers without. Scripture givens us reason to believe that the righteous will not only inherit heaven but an entire new creation.
Is there a hell? Defend your answer with Scripture proofs.
Yes.
Matt. 13:40-42
Matt. 18:8-9
What is "annihilationism?" Evaluate it biblically.
The teaching that the reprobate are destroyed completely (annihilated) after the judgment, rather than facing eternal punishment.
•"the vocabulary of destruction" This can only at times appear to support annilationism. It - is not an option when the whole biblical picture is taken into account.
•Hell-fire imagery: Hell-fire speaks of the pain of the wicked, not of their consumption.
•God's justice: We must learn of divine justice from the Bible itself. It will not do to protest God's revealed judgments on the basis of what seems fair to us.
•"Universalist passages": Universalists and annilationists have to argue that the last three chapters of the Bible are not a picture of the final state since these chapters reject both views.
•Conditional immortality: Peterson believes in the immortality of human beings because the Bible clearly teaches everlasting damnation for the wicked and everlasting life for the righteous. ...
What is your view of the millennium? Briefly defend your view from Scripture.
Amillennialism- According to this view there is not sufficient ground for belief in a literal millennium that will last for a thousand years. This position advocates that after Christ's second coming the final judgment and the eternal state will be ushered in. This position sees the number 1000 as symbolic for a long period of time, or of "completeness."
Postmillennialism- This position holds to the idea that Christ will return after the millennium. The 1000 or more I years of peace on the earth that come about as a result of Christians' preaching and teaching. Their work in the world will bring many conversions, reducing evil to a minimum. After this period of the Church' s greatness, Christ will come again, the dead will rise, and God will conduct the final judgment.
Premillennialism- The teaching that Christ will return, set up an earthly kingdom, and role for 1000 years. According to this view, Christ's return will be preceded by an increasingly evil world-more wars, famines, earthquakes-by the Gospel's being preached to all peoples, by the appearance of the Antichrist and by the great tribulation. Christ will then come and set up His Kingdom and reign with the saints for 1000 years. Jews will come to Christ in large numbers and will again take an important place in God's kingdom. After the millennium, evil will again cause rebellion. but God will crush it At that time God will raise unbelievers for eternal judgment in hell and create a new heaven and earth for believers.
What does the Bible teach about the Holy Spirit's work in the Old Testament?
The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament as he is in the New Testament was an agent in creation, giving life, revealing God’s Word, and enabling his people.
a.shaping creation
b.revealing God’s message
c.eliciting faith, repentance, obedience and righteousness
What is the Holy Spirit's function today? Is it different than in the past?
The Holy Spirit includes the generation of life, preparing men for office, the inspiration of Scripture, the formation and increase of the church, and teaching and guiding the church. He also grants blessings which are ours in Christ: regeneration, conviction of sin, adoption, the fruit of the Spirit, etc
What happened at Pentecost? How does this relate to the church today?
At Pentecost the Spirit began to indwell the church empowering the apostles with courage and memory of all that Jesus taught. Not only did this allow for the infallible Scriptures of the New Testament, but also provided the bold proclamation of the gospel to people of all tribes tongues and nations

A.The outpouring of the Holy Spirit as fulfillment of OT/Baptist/Jesus (Acts 2:1-41).
1.The salvation-historical place of Pentecost
a.God’s outpouring of the Spirit is not divorced from the rest of God’s work
b.It is foreseen in the OT (Jeremiah 31:31-37 [I have taken you out of slavery and given you instructions how to live, I have given you everything you need, yet something is amiss. So I will put my Spirit in your heart and let you know my purposes and my heart] -- it is not God’s purpose to have charismatic people but to have people who have the heart of God and that love Him) - intimate closeness with the person of God, not miraculous displays
c.What does Pentecost mean to a Jews?
1)First-fruits of the harvest (like Thanksgiving)—first-fruits of the work of Christ
2)Connection between the giving of the Law and the Pentecost (Intertestamental material) – signifies that God is writing His law on the hearts of the people -- for the purpose of godliness
a)The giving of the Law came 50 days after the passover
b)Pentecost came 50 days after the death of Christ
Distinguish between the gifts and the fruit of the Spirit.
The fruit of the Spirit is developed in believers’ character as they mature in their relationship with the Lord. Spiritual gifts are given to believers for “the equipping of the saints for the works of service, the building up of the body of Christ. They are not character qualities as much as abilities given for the planting and sustaining of the church
Gal. 5:22
Does the Spirit give gifts today? Explain.
The gifts of the spirit can be defined as abilities given to God’s people which are essential to the planting and sustaining of the church. As such, the Spirit continues to give gifts for the sustaining of the church (Preaching, evangelism, teaching, prayer, helps, administration, etc) though I believe extra-ordinary gifts have ceased. Especially with regard to new revelation.
Are there gifts mentioned in Scripture that are not given today? Explain and defend.
There are gifts of the Spirit which seem to have been designed to provide for the foundation upon which the church would be built. This foundation is given to us in the form of Scripture-the apostolic witness of the New Testament. Such gifts include prophecy, signs and wonders, and miracles- those gifts associated with the affirmation of the message and witness of the Apostolic office which has now ceased.
What do New Testament passages teach us concerning the following work of the Holy Spirit?
•How he comes
He comes like a dove; in tongues of fire at Pentecost, through the hearing of the Word
•How he works
In our hearts by and with the word
•What he does
Generation of life, preparing men for office, formation and increase of the church, teaching and guiding the church, with the word, grants blessings which are ours in Christ: regeneration, conviction of sin, adoption, the fruit of the Spirit.
•What his ministry is today
Sealing us in our union with Christ
How would you answer charismatic claims from Scripture?
see Carrico Notes 76ff.
Answer from the Scriptures:
Mormon
There is one God who is the creator of the world
Christ did not become God- he was God from all eternity
Finality of Scripture
Trinity
Works of righteousness
Answer from the Scriptures:
Jehovah's Witness
Deity of Christ
Eternal Son of God
Works of Salvation
Hermeneutics of John 1
Colossians 1
Hebrews 1