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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define joint
site where 2 or more bones meet
classification of joints structurally
fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
classification joints functionally
synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, diarthrotic
general nature of fibrous joints. name and example of 3 most common
suture-only in bones of the skull
syndesmoses- bones are connected by a ligament
gomphoses- peg and socket, tooth
general structure of cartilaginous joints. 2 common
bones are united by cartilage, no joint cavity.
synchondroses, symphesis
structural characteristics shared by all synovial joints
atricular cartilage
synovial fliud
reinforcing ligaments
joint cavity
articular cartilage
3 natural factors that stabilize synovial joints
shapes of articualr surface
number and position of ligaments
muscle tone
structure and functions of bursae and tendon sheaths
completely wrap around a tendon in places of high friction to help reduce it
body movements
rotation
supination/pronation
inversion/eversion
protraction/retraction
elevation/depression
opposition
circumduction
abduction/adduction
flexion/extension/dorsiflexion
6 types of synovial joints
plane-intercarpal
hinge- elbow
pivot- radius
condyloid-knuckle
saddle-thumb
ball and socket-hip
most common joint injuries
sprains-ligaments stretched or torn
cartilage- torn need to be surgically fixed
dislocation- bones out of alignment, need to be reduced
factors that promote joint homeostasis
injuries, age,excessive exercise
origin vs insertion
origin- muscle attached to a immovable bone
insertion- attachment to a movable bone
range of motion in a synovial joint
nonaxial
uniaxial
biaxial
multiaxial
3 types of movement in a synovial joint
gliding
angular
rotation
osteoarthritis
most common
enzymes break down old acrtilage and it gets replaced. in OA, it gets broken down faster than it gets replaced
rheumatoid arthritis
joint tenderness and stiffness. symptoms show up bilaterally and tend to come and go. autoimmune disease and initial trigger is thought to be brought on my strep. synovial membrane inflames, inflamitory cells migrate there and release too much chemical, destroying body tissue. synovial fluid accumulates and causes swelling. synovial membrane thickens and articualr cartilage begins to cling to it. usually immobilazes the joint
gouty arthritis
blood levels or uric acid rise excessivly and leads to a deposit of urate crystals in the soft tissue of joints (big toe). an inflammatory responce follows, leading to a painful attack on the gout.
menisci
wedges of fibrocartilage separating the articular surfaces.
capsular ligaments
the thickest part of the fibrous capsule that reinforce and strengthen joint.
extracapsular ligaments
do not actually lie within the membrane
elbow joint-
articulating bones, movemetn allowed, and relative joint stability
humerous, tibia ulna
flextion extention
very stable because of bone structure
knee joint-
articulating bones, movement allowed, and relative joint stability
tibia, fibula, femur
flexion, extension some rotation
relatively strong, uses medial and lateral reinforcment
hip-
articulating bones, movement allowed, and relative joint stability
femur and pelvis
rotation
most stable joint because of the large head in a deep groove on the pelvic bone
shoulder-
articulating bones, movemetn allowed, and relative joint stability
glenohumerous joint
humerous to scapular
rotation
least stable joint
osteoarthritis
population affected, possbile causes, structural joint changes, disease outcome, and therapy.
most common in aged, caused by the aging process. more women than men are affected. Enzymes break down old cartilage and replace it. theory is that catrtilage gets broekn down faster then it gets replaced.
rheumatoid arthritis
population affected, possbile causes, structural joint changes, disease outcome, and therapy.
aged 40-50. 3 times as many women. bilateral joint tenderness and stiffness. autoimmune disease. triggered by strep. inflammation of the synovial membrane, antiinflamatory cells migrate and destroy body tissues. eventually cartilage ossifies and immobilizes joint.
gouty arthritis
population affected, possbile causes, structural joint changes, disease outcome, and therapy.
more common in males.. genetic. uric acid levels rise on blood stream and leave deposits of urate crystals insoft tissues. antinflamatory responce, painful attack on gout