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75 Cards in this Set

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Nervous System can be divided into two types. Name them.
The Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System.
What does the Central Nervous System contain?
The Central Nervous System contains the Brain, and the Spinal Cord.
What does the Peripheral Nervous System contain?
The Peripheral Nervous System consists of the Cranial and Spinal Nerves, Visceraul Afferent, Autonomic Nervous System.
Part of the Peripheral Nervous System, the Automatic Nervous System, can be further divided into two systems. What are they?
The Autonomic Nervous System is divided into the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems.
Name the Spinal Nerves and their number.
Peripheral Nervous System; consisting of 12 Cranial nerves and the Spinal Nerves: 8 cervical Nerves, 12 thoracic Nerves, 5 lumbar, 5 Sacral, 1 Coccygeal.
What is a neuron?
Nervous System is made up of Neurons. The neuron is the most basic functional unit of the nervous system.
Name and describe the 6 parts of a Neuron.
Neuron consists of a:
-Cell Body; main bulk of neuron
- Dendrites; little extensions off the body
-Axon; longer extension off the body
-Myelin; wraps the Axon
- Nodes of Ranvier; gaps in the Axon with out any Myelin
-Axon Terminals; end of Axon
What are the two ways that all Neurons in the Nervous System can be categorized ?
All Neurons in the Nervous System can be categorized as either Somatic Neurons or Automatic Neurons.
What is the difference between Somatic Neurons and Automatic Neurons?
The Somatic Neurons can be observed in the environment. They are involved with voluntary activities (tell arm to move). The automatic neurons are involved with involuntary, unconscious activities (heart beating, food digestion)
How can the functions of neurons be categorized?
Neurons are categorized as Efferent, Afferent, or a mix of both. Efferent Neurons conduct impulses away from the cell body or from the central nervous system. Afferent Neurons conduct impulses toward the neuron cell body or toward the nervous system.
What do Dendrites do?
-Dendrites (afferent); help move information toward the CNS
What do axons do?
-Axons (efferent); moves information away from CNS
What is Myelin and what does it do?
-Myelin; covering of the axon, it lines the nerve fiber to protect it and insulate it as well as help transmission of electrical current carrying data from one nerve cell to the next. It helps to speed it up.
What are the Nodes of Ranvier and what do they do?
-Nodes of Ranvier; Gaps in Myelin. Junctions where the nerve process is exposed and helps to increase the velocity of nerve impulses as well.
When and how does Myelin form?
Myelin has to develop. When a child is born all of their Axons are not yet covered in Myelin. But as they learn a skill the Myelin will form to help them to accomplish that skill faster and faster. Most of the time the Myelination of nerve fibers doesn’t occur till later in childhood.
What is a Synapse?
Neurons a link together to form chains. Synapse is a meeting point between two neurons in a chain.
What is a Synaptic Cleft?
Actual space between two neurons in a chain.
What is a Nerve?
A group or bundle of axons or dendrites from numerous neurons form a Nerve.
There are 3 different types of nerves. Name them
Sensory; afferent—bring information toward the CNS

Motor nerves; efferent–they take information from the CNS and send it out

Mixed; Both Afferent and efferent.
Name the 3 sections of the Brain
The three sections of brain are the Hindbrain, Midbrain and Forebrain.
The Hindbrain divides into two parts. What are those parts?
The Hindbrain (aka rhombencephalon) is further divided into the Metecephalon and the Myelencephalon (AKA Medulla oblongata).
What is another name for rhombencephalon?
Hindbrain
What is another name for Myelencephalon?
Medulla oblongata
Where does the Metacephalon belong? (Hindbrain, Forebrain or Mid Brain?
Hindbrain
Into what two parts does the Metecephalon divide?
The Metecephalon divides even further into the Cerebelum and Pons.
What is the medulla oblongata?
The medulla oblongata or Myelencephalon is where the spinal cord merges into the brain.
What is the Cerebellum known as and what does it do?
The Cerebellum is known as the little brain. It regulates limb movement, balance and posture.
What is the Pons?
The Pons is a bridge to join the two brain hemispheres of the cerebellum. It connects the cerebellum with the cerebrum and with the spinal cord.
To what part of the brain does the Pons belong?
The Pons is part of the Metecephalon which is part of the The Hindbrain (aka rhombencephalon)
What is another name for the Midbrain?
Another name for the midbrain is the Mesencephalon.
What does the Midbrain do?
It helps connect the forebrain and the hindbrain. It aids in regulating and coordinating movements.
What is another term for the Forebrain?
The Forebrain is also known as the Prosencephalon
What two parts does the forebrain divide into?
The Forebrain (AKA prosencephalon) is divided into the Diencephalon and the Telencephalon.
What two parts does the Dienceephalon divide into?
The Dienceephalon is then further divided into the Thalamus and the Hypothalamus.
What does the Dienceephalon belong to?
Forebrain (AKA prosencephalon)
What is the Thalamus?
The Thalamus is the relay and integration center for sensory information.
What does the Hypothalamus do?
The Hypothalamus controls visceral activities, water, balance, temperature, sleep and metabolic functions.
What is another name for the Telencephalon?
The Telencephalon is also known as the Cerebrum.
What is the largest section of the human brain?
Telencephalon/Cerebrum.
How many hemispheres does the cerebrum have and what separates them?
There are two hemispheres of the cerebrum.There is a longitudinal fissure that separates the two hemispheres.
What part of the brain is highly convoluted, meaning it is bumpy with ridges and grooves?
Telencephalon also known as the Cerebrum.
Describe some key features of the Cerebrum
It is the largest section of the human brain. There are two hemispheres of the cerebrum. It is highly convoluted, meaning it is bumpy with ridges and grooves. There is a longitudinal fissure that separates the two hemispheres. There is a central sulcus which helps separate the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe. The Gyri are the surfaces of the hemispheres that bump out. The Sulci are the depressions that go in. It also contains the Frontal, Parietal, Temporal and Occiptal lobes.
What is the central sulcus?
Central sulcus is part of the cerebrum, it helps separate the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
What are gyri
Surfaces of the hemispheres of the Cerebrum that bump out.
What are Sulci?
The Sulci are the depressions that go in also know as the convolutions, in between the gyri of the Cerebrum
Name the Lobes of the Cerebrum
Lobes are named for the cranial bone they are most closely associated with: Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, Occipital.
What are the Basal Ganglia and what do they do?
Masses of gray matter within the cerebrum. Regulates complex motor functions: posture, locomotion, balance.
They are also inhibitory, help to decrease muscle tone, and help with coordination of motor behaviors of muscle groups. If there is a lesion of the basal ganglia it may result in involuntary movements, increased muscle tone or rigidity, and arresting tremors.
What two important areas/items are located in the Frontal Lobe?
Primary motor strip-located in the precentral gyrus
Broca’s Speech Area-Located in ONLY ON THE LEFT inferior frontal gyrus
What does the Primary motor strip of the frontal lobe do?
This area is associated with common motor pathway to skeletal muscles. When there is damage to the primary motor strip it will cause motor problems. If the damage is on the left side of the brain in the primary motor strip, it will cause motor difficulties on the right side of the body. And vice versa.
What does Broca’s Speech Area do?
It is responsible for the motor movements required for speech.

Someone with damage to this area might be able to understand and think language, but have difficulty coordinating the muscle movements to actually make spontaneous speech.
Damage to this area can result in Apraxia or Aphasia
Broca’s Speech Area
What two important areas/items are located in the Parietal Lobe?
Primary Sensory Strip
Left angular gyrus: ONLY on the LEFT
What does the Primary Sensory Strip do?
It works on opposite sides of the body to affect senses. Problems sensor strip on the right side of brain will cause issues with senses on the left side of body (ex. sensing cold/hot) and vice versa.
What does the Left angular gyrus do?
ONLY on the LEFT. Damage to this area causes problems with comprehension of written words (alyexia/dyslexia reading impairment and agraphia-writing impairment)
What is the occipital lobe's function?
The occipital lobe contains the primary visual area and visual association areas. Damage to the occipital lobe results in vision problems.
What important areas/functions occur in the Temporal Lobe?
The temporal lobe contains the cortical center for hearing. It also contains Wernicke’s area (some textbooks extend Wernicke’s up into the Parietal lobe as well). Wernicke’s area is responsible for the integration of the auditory and visual stimuli.
The enlarged region where the spinal cord merges into brain
medulla oblongata
The part of the hindbrain occupying the fossa behind the brain stem; integrating center for coordination and equilibrium
cerebellum
An upward continuation of the medulla oblongata which functions as a bridge between the two hemispheres of the cerebellum
pons
Major relay and integration center for sensory information going to the cerebral cortex
thalamus
Controls visceral and metabolic functions, sleep, temperature,
water balance, etc.
hypothalamus
continuation of the lower end of the medulla oblongata
spinal cord
the paired convoluted cerebral hemispheres united by the corpus
callosum
cerebrum
convolutions of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres
gyri
grooves or furrows; depressions separating the convolutions of
the brain
sulci
largely demarcated by the lateral and central sulci; names
derived from overlying cranial bones
lobes
comprising the diencephalon, mesencephalon, pons, and
medulla oblongata; a major integrating center of sensory, motor, and bodily functions
brain stem
interconnects cortical regions in the same hemisphere
Association fibers
transmits impulses to and from the cerebral cortex
Projection fibers
connect cortical regions of the two hemispheres
Commissural fibers
Corpus Callosum
Commissural fibers
Arcuate fasciculus
Association fibers
long and short bundles of fibers
Association fibers
What does the basal ganglia regulate?
Posture
Locomotion
Balance
Functions of the hypothalamus
Body Temperature, Thirst, Circadian
rhythms