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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Examination of cerebral neurons from patients with Alzheimer's disease demonstrate what feature?
Neurofibrillary tangles
A 25 year old female presents with altered mental status and spider angiomas on exam. She was found to have cirrhosis of the liver of unknown etiology. She was not an alcoholic, and did not take drugs. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Wilson's disease (accumulation of copper in brain, liver, other organs; most common age 2-50)
Gingival hyperplasia is a common side effect of what anticonvulsant?
Phenytoin
Organophosphate poisoning inhibits which enzyme?
Acetylcholinesterase (leads to increased ACh, causes nausea, vomiting, confusion)
Night blindness is commonly caused by a deficiency of what vitamin?
Vitamin A (synthesizes rhodopsin)
What fungus commonly causes meningitis in AIDS patients?
Cryptococcus
Deficiency of vitamin B1 commonly leads to what syndrome?
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome/encephalopathy, aka Wernicke encephalopathy (Thiamine=B1) (Korsakoff is commonly seen as a continuation of Wernicke's - more severe)
Beriberi is a deficiency of what vitamin?
Thiamine or B1
Prolonged alcohol or methamphetamine use may result in a deficiency of what vitamin, leading to what condition?
Thiamine or B1; Wernicke's encephalopathy
Multiple sclerosis is primarily a disease of what cells?
Oligodendrocytes (myelin forming cells of CNS)
What disease is associated with Argyll-Robertson pupils?
Neurosyphilis
Pupils that accommodate but do not react are called what and are associated with what disease?
Argyll-Robertson pupils, neurosyphilis
What would be the result of a lesion that destroys both inferior colliculi?
Deafness
A patient presents with weakness and loss of fine skilled movements of the extremities of one side of the body. Where is the lesion?
Lateral corticospinal tract in cervical cord
The burning sensation associated with an inflammation of the trachea would be mediated by what nerve?
Recurrent laryngeal
What organism most commonly causes epiglottitis in children?
Hemophilus influenzae B
What class of drugs is considered first line therapy for Alzheimer's dementia?
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
What disease is associated with Romana's sign?
Chagas' disease (Romana sign - oculoglandular complex or eye sign - edema and inflammation of lacrimal glands)
Edema and inflammation of the lacrimal glands accompanied with fever, body aches, diarrhea, and vomiting are signs of what?
Chagas' disease
A malignant tumor in the lungs has resulted in enlargement of the mediastinal lymph nodes and subsequent compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. This would result in what symptom?
Hoarseness
What virus commonly causes retinitis in AIDS patients?
Cytomegalovirus
Peripheral neuropathy and high output heart failure may be signs of what vitamin deficiency?
Thiamine or B1; this is beriberi
Tinnitus, deafness, vertigo, and hyperpnea are associated with what intoxication?
Salicylate
Multiple epidermoid cysts in the jaw area and osteomas of the facial bones are associated with what disease?
Gardner's syndrome (also causes intestinal polyposis, fibromas, lipomas, desmoids)
A patient presents with drooping of the upper eyelid, a constricted pupil, dryness and flushing of the face; these are all unilateral. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Horner's syndrome (damage to sympathetic trunk)
A 2 month old infant is brought to the ED with a fever of 104 and lethargy. The PA suspects meningitis and does a lumbar puncture. The CSF contains elevated WBCs. What 2 agents should be suspected?
H. influenzae - responsible for most meningitis cases over 1 month of age; N. meningitidis - cause of meningitis most often in 1st year of life
What muscle does the phrenic nerve innervate?
Diaphragm
What are the 3 categories that make up the Glasgow Coma Scale?
Visual, verbal, motor
What is the total number of primary teeth a child has?
20
What nerve passes through the cubital tunnel?
Ulnar nerve
A strawberry tongue indicates what?
Scarlet fever
What is the most common site of epistaxis?
Kesselbach's plexus
What syndrome is associated with cranial nerve 7 palsy and vesicular lesions in the ear canal?
Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome
Indicative of the end of spinal shock, this reflex is elicited by monitoring sphincter tone while tension is applied to an inflated Foley catheter.
Bulbocavernosus reflex
Receptive aphasia is commonly due to a lesion in what area of the brain?
Wernicke's area
Expressive aphasia is commonly due to a lesion in what area of the brain?
Broca's area
Aphasia with good comprehension and speech, but bad repetition and naming is known as what?
Conduction aphasia
Broca's area is what Brodmann areas?
44 and 45
Wernicke's area is what Brodmann area?
22
triad for normal pressure hydrocephalus
gait disturbance, incontinence, and dementia
besides corenal abrasion, what ocular condition(s) can be detected by examination of the eye with flourescence stain?
herpes simplex keratitis, foreign bodies, corneal ulcer, and conjunctival abrasions
when a patient presents with a new onset of low back pain, what questions would you ask to rule out cauda equina syndrome?
bowel or bladder function, or if they experience saddle anesthesia
the combination of recent onset of confusion, fever, muscle rigidity and diaphoresis are consistent with the diagnosis of what?
neuroleptic malignant syndrome
A 17 year old male presents to the clinic with a complaint of weakness and numbness that started in his toes and has ascended to his knees in the last couple of hours. He had his annual influenza vaccination 2 weeks ago. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Guillain Barre syndrome
Cherry red spots on the macula, widening of the retina indicates what?
Central retinal vein occlusion