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57 Cards in this Set

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absorption
passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream
amino acids
building blocks of proteins and produced when proteins are digested
amylase
enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
anus
opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
appendix
blind pouch hanging from the cecum
bile
Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.

It breaks up large fat globules.

It has a bitter taste.

It is composed of bile pigments, cholesterol and bile salts.
bilirubin
pigment released by the liver in bile
bowel
intestine
canine teeth
pointed, dog-like (canine) teeth. next to (distal to) the incisors.

Also called cuspids and eyeteeth
cecum
first part of the large intestine
colon
large intestine:

cecum
ascending colon
transverse colon
descending colon
rectum
common bile duct
carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum
defecation
expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus
deglutition
swallowing
dentin
major tissue composing teeth.

covered by the enamel in the crown

protective layer of cementum in the root
digestion
breakdown of complex foods to simplier forms
duodenum
first part of small intestine.

duo = 2
den = 10

2 + 10 = 12

the duodenum is 12 inches long
elimination
removal of waste material from the body
emulsification
physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thus increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
enamel
hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyne
a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances.

digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of complex foods to simplier foods
esophagus
tube connecting the throat to the stomach.

eso = inward

phag/o = swallowing
fatty acids
substances produced when fats are digested
feces
solid wastes; stools
gallbladder
small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose
simple sugar
glycogen
starch

glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells
hydrocholoric acid
substance produced by the stomach

necessary for digestion of food
ileum
3rd part of the small intestine
incisor
one of 4 front teeth in the dental arch
insulin
hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas.

transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
jejunum
2nd part of the small intestine
lipase
pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver
a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen.

liver secretes bile

liver stores sugar, iron and vitamins

liver produces blood proteins

liver destroys worn-out RBCs

normal adult liver weighs 2 1/2 - 3 lbs
lower esophangeal sphincter (LES)
ring of muscles b/t the esophagus and the stomach

also called the cardiac sphincter
mastication
chewing
molar teeth
6th, 7th and 8th teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch.
palate
roof of the mouth

the hard palate lies anterior to the soft palate
pancreas
organ under the stomach

produces insulin
-for transport of sugar into cells

produces enzymes
-for digestion of foods
papillae
small elevations on the tongue
parotid gland
salivary gland within the cheek

anterior to the ear
peristalsis
rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the GI tract and other tubular structures.

peristalsis moves the contents through the GI tract at different rates:
-stomach: 0.5 - 2 hours
-small intestine: 2 - 6 hours
-colon: 6 - 71 hours
pharynx
throat

common passageway for food from the mouth and air from the nose
portal vein
large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
protease
enzymes that digest protein
pulp
soft tissue within a tooth

contains nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle fibers at the distal region of the stomach where it joins at the duodenum
rectum
last section of the colon
rugae
ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva
digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands
parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon
lower part of the colon

shaped like an s
sphincter
ring of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach
muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus

the stomach's parts are:

-fundus (proximal section)
-body (middle section)
-antrum (distal section)
triglycerides
large fat molecules composed of 3 parts fatty acid and 1 part glycerol
uvula
soft tissue hanging from the soft palate in the mouth
villi
microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream