Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/121

Click to flip

121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anabolism
Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
catabolism
Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy.
cell membrane
Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.
chromosomes
Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.
cytoplasm
All the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.
DNA
Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the cell.
endoplasmic reticulum
Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces. Ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic reticulum.
genes
Regions of DNA within each chromosome.
karyotype
Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.
metabolism
The total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes both catabolism and anabolism.
mitochondria
Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy.
nucleus
Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.
Digestive
mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, intestines (small and large), liver gallbladder, pancreas
Urinary or excretory
kidneys, ureters (tubes from the kidneys to the urinary bladder), urinary bladder, urethra (tube from the bladder to the outside of the body)
Respiratory
nose, pharynx, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchial tubes, lungs (where the exchange of gases takes place)
Reproductive
female: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus (womb), vagina, mammary glands; male: testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland
Endocrine
thyroid gland (in the neck), pituitary gland (at the base of the brain), sex glands (ovaries and testes), adrenal glands, pancreas (islets of Langerhans), parathyroid glands
Nervous
brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves
Circulatory
heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins,and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland
Musculoskeletal
muscles, bones, and joints
Skin and sense organs
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands; eye, ear, nose, and tongue
cartilage
Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints. For example, it surrounds the trachea and forms part of the external ear and nose.
epithelial cell
Skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surfaces of organs.
histologist
Specialist in the study of tissues.
larynx
Voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea.
pharynx
Throat. The pharynx is the common passageway for food (from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the nose to the trachea).
pituitary gland
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
thyroid gland.
Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.
trachea
Windpipe (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes).
ureter
One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder. Spelling clue: Ureter has two e's and there are two of them.
urethra
Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. Spelling clue: Urethra has one e and there is only one urethra.
uterus
The womb. The organ that holds the embryo and fetus as it develops.
viscera
Internal organs.
abdominal cavity
Space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomen.
cranial cavity
Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull. Cranial means pertaining to the skull.
diaphragm
Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
dorsal (posterior)
Pertaining to the back.
mediastinum
Centrally located space between the lungs.
pelvic cavity
Space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs. Pelvic means pertaining to the hip bone, which surrounds the pelvic cavity.
peritoneum
Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen.
pleura
A double-layered membrane surrounding each lung.
pleural cavity
Space between the pleural membranes and surrounding each lung.
spinal cavity
Space within the spinal column (backbones) and containing the spinal cord. Also called the spinal canal.
thoracic cavity
Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs.
ventral (anterior)
Pertaining to the front.
hypochondriac
Upper right and left regions beneath the ribs.
epigastric
Upper middle region above the stomach.
lumbar
Middle right and left regions near the waist.
umbilical
Central region near the naval.
inguinal
Lower right and left regions near the groin. Also called iliac regions.
hypogastric
Lower middle region below the umbilical region.
RUQ
Right upper quadrant
LUQ
Left upper quadrant
RLQ
Right lower quadrant
LLQ
Left lower quadrant
cervical
Neck region
thoracic
Chest region
lumbar
Loin (waist) region
sacral
Region of the sacrum
coccygeal
Region of the coccyx (tailbone)
vertebra
A single backbone.
vertebrae
Backbones.
spinal column
Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity.
spinal cord
Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity.
disk (disc)
A pad of cartilage between vertebrae.
anterior (ventral)
Front side of the body.
deep
Away from the surface.
distal
Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure.
frontal (coronal) plane
Vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions.
inferior (caudal)
Below another structure.
lateral
Pertaining to the side.
medial
Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body.
posterior (dorsal)
Back side of the body.
prone
Lying on the belly (face down, palm down).
proximal
Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure.
sagittal (lateral) plane
Lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides. From the Latin sagitta, meaning arrow. As an arrow is shot from a bow it enters the body in the sagittal plane, dividing right from left. The midsagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves.
superficial
On the surface.
superior (cephalic)
Above another structure.
supine
Lying on the back (face up, palm up).
transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane
Horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions.
abdomin/o
abdomen
adip/o
fat
anter/o
front
bol/o
to cast (throw)
cervic/o
neck (of the body or of the uterus)
chrom/o
color
coccyg/o
coccyx (tailbone)
crani/o
skull
dist/o
far, distant
dors/o
back portion of the body
hist/o
tissue
ili/o
ilium (part of the pelvic bone)
inguin/o
groin
kary/o
nucleus
leter/o
side
lumb/o
lower back (side and back between the ribs and the pelvis)
medi/o
middle
nucle/o
nucleus
pelv/o
hip, pelvic cavity
poster/o
back, behind
proxim/o
nearest
sacr/o
sacrum
spin/o
spine, backbone
thel/o
nipple
thorac/o
chest
trache/o
trachea, windpipe
umbilic/o
navel, umbilicus
ventr/o
belly side of the body
vertebr/o
vertebrae, backbones
viscer/o
internal organs
ana-
up
cata-
down
inter-
between
meta-
change
-eal
pertaining to
-iac
pertaining to
-ior
pertaining to
-ose
pertaining to, full of
-somes
bodies
-type
picture, classification
-plasm
formation