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42 Cards in this Set

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Sites where 2 or more bones meet are called?
Articulations/joints
What are the 2 functions of joints?
1. secure bones together
2. allow rigid skeleton to move
How are joints classified?
1. what type of material is the joint made of
2. how much joint movement is allowed
what is the one body in the body that doesn't articulate with any other bone?
hyoid bone
What are some chracteristics of fibrous joints?
1. no joint cavity present
2. bones joined by fibrous tissue
3. most are synathrotic
immovable joints are called _
slightly moveable joints_
freely moveable joints _
synarthroses
amphiarthroses
diathroses
rigid fibrous joints found in the bones of the cranium.
sutures
bones connected by fibrous tissue made of ligaments or interosseous membrane. movement increases witht the length of the connecting fibers
syndesmoses

ex. tibia/fibula
radius/ulna
peiodontal ligament made of fibrous tissse that holds teeth in their sockets
gomphoses
give some characteristics of cartilaginous joints
1. articulating bones united by cartilage
2. no joint cavity
type of cartilaginous joint that unites bones with a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage
synchondroses
ex. ephyseal plates, joint btwn 1st rib and manubrium
cartilaginous joint where outside surfaces on bones are covered with articular hyaline cartilage.
symphyses
articular hyaline cartilage is fused to a pad of _ on bone surfaces. this material permits little movement
fibrocartilage
Give some characteristics of synovial joints
1. articular cartilage covers the opposing bone surfaces
2. joint cavity present
3.articular capsule present-covers all surfaces except hyaline covered areas
4. synovial fluid present-provides a slippery weight beraing film that reduces friction
5. joints reinforced and strenghtened by a number of reinforcing ligaments
the _ _ sepeate and improve the articulating bone ends making the joint more stable
found in the knee, jaw and sternoclavicular joints
articular discs
Not a part of synovial joints but frequently associated with them.
Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
Flattened fibrous sacs lined with synovial membrane containing a thin film of synovial fluid. Common in sites where muscle, skin, or ligaments rub against bone
Bursae
Elongated bursae that wrap completely around a tendon subjected to friction
Tendon sheaths
Why must joints be stabilized?
so that they don't dislocate
the stability of synovial joints depends on what 3 factors?
1. shape of articular surface-determines wha movements are possible.

2. the # and positioning of ligaments

3. muscle tone-tendons are kept taut at all times by the tone of the muscles
Where is muscle tone especially important and why?
Muscle tone is extremely important in knee and shoulder joints. These areas have ligaments and tendons which allo bending movement.
What are the 3 catagories of range of motion allowed by synovial joints?
1. nonaxial-slipping motion only
2. uniaxial - movement in 1 plane
3. multiaxial-movment in or around all 3 planes of spaces or axes
How many general types of meovements do synovial joints allow?
3
What type of meovment is allowed by between intercarpal/tarsal bones, intervertebral, or sternoclavicular joints?
gliding
what type of movement of synovial joints is defined as a change of angle between 2 bones?
angular
what angle movment is defined as a:
1. reduce angle
2. increase angle
3. move latterally
4. move medially
5. movement of the distal end of a limb-entire limb moves like a cone
1. flexion
2. extension
3. abduction
4. adduction
5. circumduction
What synovial joint movement describes the turning movement of a bone around its own long axis?
rotation
what is the only movement allowed by te atlas-axis joint called?
rotation
what movement is common at the hip and shoulder joints?
rotation
Ligmanents reinforcing a joint that is stretched or torn is called?
sprain
where are the common areas for a sprain to occur?
lumbar regions of the spine, ankle and the knee.
Partially torn ligaments will repair themselves, T or F ?
True
How must completely ruptures ligaments be repaired and why?
they must be repaired surgically and quickly because the inflammatory response will turn the injured ligament to mush.
What causes cartilage injuries?
tearing of the cartilage is due to high pressure and twisitng motions occuring simultaneously
What can cartilage rarely repair itself?
because it is avascular
What can damaged cartilage framents do if not removed surgically?
the fragments can interfere with joint function by causing locking or binding of the joint
this occurs when bones are forced out of their normal positions at a joint.
dislocation
what type of injury is the most common sports injury?
dislocation
how is a disclocation treated?
bones out of position must be reduced, or put back into correct position
inflamation of a bursa caused n=by excessive stress or friction is called?
bursitis
what are common ways a bursistis injury occurs?
falling on your knee ( housemaids knee or water on the knee), prolonged leaning on the elbow (students elbow), or bacterial infection
Inflamation of the tendon sheaths is called?
Tendonitis