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15 Cards in this Set

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Concept Identification
Task that requires deciding whether an item is an example of a concept, where concepts are typically defined by logical rules
Conjunctive Rule
Uses logical relations AND to relate stimulus attributes (such as small & square)
-Both attributes have to be present to be a conjunctive rule
Disnjunctive Rule
Uses logical relations OR to relate stimulus attributes
-A pattern that has either of these attributes
Attribute Learning
Concept identification task in which people are told the logical rule (conjunctive...) but hvae to discover the relevant attributes
Criticisms of Concept Identification Paradigm
1)Real-word categories are unlike the categories studied in the lab-Highly artificial & unrelated to the categorization tasks we usually encounter in the real world
2)It assumed that all members of a concept are equally good members
- Rules fail to predict typicality ratings
-Even if something can be defined on the basis of rules it may contain examples that differ in the typicality effect
Natural Categories
Real-World Categories
-Hierarchical-Each level contains many objects, but the variety decreases as the category becomes smaller
-Some members seem to be better representatives of the category than others
Superordinate Level Category
Top of hierarchy - Largest category-Members share few attributes
-(eg)Furniture, tools, vehicles
Basic-Level Category
Intermediate category in middle of hierarchy (eg)Table, saw, truck
- Most important because they're the most differentiated from one another-1st category we learn & most important in language
-Avoids: members sharing too few or too many attributes
-Members share many attributes but also have attributes that differ
-Categorization is fastest at basic-level
Subordinate-Level Category
Bottom of hierarchy-Smallest caegory (eg)Table-lamp, jigsaw, pickup truck
-Members share many attributes
Prototype
An item that typifies the members in a category & is used to represent the category
-Prototype of category is usually the "average"-Represents central tendency
-Think of objects from same basic-level (not avg shape of furniture, but avg shape of chair)
-Average shape is impossible at superordinate level
Family Resemblance
A measure of how frequently the attributes of a category member are shared by other members of the category
-(eg)A car has wheels as its attribute, so we'd count the vehicles that also have them
-Good representatives of a category have high family resemblance
Stereotype
An attribute value believed to be representative of social categories
-Exaggerating within group similarity
Prototype Model
Classification strategy that selects the category whose prototype is the most similar to the classified item
-Doesn't require many comparisons to classify a pattern
-Compares novel pattern with single pattern in each category
-Person creates prototype to represent each category & classifies a novel pattern by comparing it with the category prototypes
Feature Frequency Model
Classification strategy that selects the category having the most feature matches with the classified item - Matching Features
-Looks at features of the pattern & compares how many times they exactly match features of the category patterns
Exemplar Model
Proposes that patterns are categorized by comparing their similarity to category examples
-Base decisions on examples in the categories
-Nearest-neighbor & average distance