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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When does closure of the neural tube occur?
26-28 days
Separation of the neural and cutaneous ectoderm is called what?
Dysjunction
Process of closing the neural tube is called what?
Neurulation
What is the difference between lipomyelomeningocele and myelomeningocele-- anatomical and functional?
Lipo is a defect of the closed neural tube (faulty dysjunction). The patient is often normal at birth. Myelo is a defect of an open neural tube (faulty neurulation). The patient is often paralyzed below the level of the lesion.
There is no spinal cord involvement, even though it is an open tube defect (faulty neurulation) in which disorder?
Meningocele
A collection of CSF in the spinal cord, which is often associated with Arnold-Chiari malformations (a situation where the cerebellar tonsil protrude below the foramen magnum is referring to what?
Syringomyelia
An inability of the brain to absorb/drain the normal amount of CSF leading to increased intracranial pressure refers to what?
Hydrocephalus
Clear fluid much like Ringers lactate formed primarily by the choroid plexus in the ventricles but a portion is also formed by the brain itself is what?
CSF
What bacteria causes skin infections, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, endocarditis, food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome?
Staph aureus
Name three different types of virulence factors that S. aureus uses.
1. Surface proteins - cell adherence
2. Enzymes that degrade host proteins - invasion and destruction
3. Toxins
What patients do less virulent strains of S. aureus tend to infect?
1. Patients with prosthetic heart valves
2. IV drug users - S. epidermidis
3. Catheterized patients - S. saprophyticus
What strain of Staph causes UTI's?
S. saprophyticus
What is the Gram stain for Staphylococcus genus bacteria?
Gram (+) cocci
What is the GRam stain for Streptococcal bacteria?
Gram (+) cocci in pairs or chains
How are Strep bacteria classified?
1. Alpha hemolysis - Incomplete or Green hemolysis
2. Beta hemolysis - Complete or Clear hemolysis
3. Gamma - no hemolysis
What is an example of a Group A Strep strain?
S. pyogenes
What is an example of a Group B Strep strain?
S. agalactiae
S. agalactiae causes what type of infection?
1. Female UTIs
2. Chorioamnionitis
3. Neonatal sepsis and meningitis
What type hemolysis does S. pneumoniae exhibit and what type of disease does it cause?
1. Alpha hemolysis
2. Community aquired pneumonia
What type of hemolysis does the Viridians group of Strep exhibit? Where do you normally find this bacteria?
1. Alpha hemolysis
2. Oral flora
What type of bacteria causes dental caries?
S. mutans