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22 Cards in this Set

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The nurse is discussing toddler development with a parent. Which of the following interventions will foster the achievement of autonomy in the toddler?
A. Help the toddler complete tasks
B. Provide opportunities for the toddler to play with other children
C. Help the toddler learn the difference between right and wrong
D. Encourage the toddler to do things for self when capable of doing them
D. Encourage the toddler to do things for self when capable of doing them
Toddlers have an increased ability to control their bodies, themselves, and the environment. Autonomy develops when children complete tasks of which they are capable.
A mother tells the nurse that her daughter's favorite toy is a large, empty box in which a stove was packaged. She plays "house" in it with her toddler brother. The nurse should recognize that this is:
A. unsafe play that should be discouraged.
B. creative play that should be encouraged.
C. suggestive of limited family resources.
D. suggestive of limited adult supervision.
B. creative play that should be encouraged.
This type of play should be encouraged. After children create something new, they can then transfer their new knowledge to other situations.
Myelination of the spinal cord is almost complete by 2 years of age. As a result of this, which of the following can gradually be achieved by the toddler?
A. Throwing a ball without falling
B. Slowing of gastrointestinal transit time
C. Visual acuity of 20/20
D. Control of anal and urethral sphincters
D. Control of anal and urethral sphincters
The voluntary control of elimination occurs between 18 and 24 months.
Which one of the following statements is most characteristic of the motor skills of a 24-month-old child?
A. A toddler walks alone but falls easily.
B. A toddler's activities begin to produce purposeful results.
C. A toddler is able to grasp small objects but cannot release them at will.
D. A toddler's motor skills are fully developed but occur in isolation from the environment.
B. A toddler's activities begin to produce purposeful results.
Gross and fine motor mastery occur with other activities.
Which of the following should the nurse recommend to help a toddler cope with the birth of a new sibling?
A. Give the toddler a doll on which he or she can imitate parenting.
B. Discourage the toddler from helping with care of new sibling.
C. Prepare the toddler for upcoming changes about 1 to 2 weeks before birth of sibling.
D. Explain to the toddler that a new playmate will soon come home.
A. Give the toddler a doll on which he or she can imitate parenting.
The toddler can participate in the activity of caring for a new family member.
A 2-year-old child has recently started having temper tantrums during which she holds her breath and sometimes faints. The nurse should:
A. Refer the child for respiratory evaluation.
B. Refer the child for psychologic evaluation.
C. Explain to the parent that this is not harmful.
D. Explain to the parent that the child is spoiled.
C. Explain to the parent that this is not harmful.
In a healthy child, the rising carbon dioxide levels stimulate breathing to reduce carbon dioxide. When she faints and is no longer able exert control in this manner, her breathing will automatically resume.
Which statement characterizes toddlers' eating behavior?
A. They have increased appetites.
B. They have few food preferences.
C. Their table manners are predictable.
D. They become fussy eaters.
D. They become fussy eaters.
Toddlers have physiologic anorexia that contributes to fussy eating.
For a toddler with sleep problems, the nurse should suggest:
A. Use of a transitional object.
B. Varying the bedtime ritual.
C. Restricting stimulating activities.
D. Explaining away fears.
A. Use of a transitional object.
A transitional object may help child ease anxiety and facilitate sleep.
The nurse is teaching the parent of a 2-year-old child how to care for the child's teeth. Which of the following should be included?
A. Flossing is not recommended at this age.
B. Child is old enough to brush teeth effectively.
C. Brush teeth with plain water if child does not like toothpaste.
D. Toothbrush should be small and have hard, rounded, nylon bristles.
C. Brush teeth with plain water if child does not like toothpaste.
Some children do not like the flavor of toothpaste or the foaming that results. Plain water should be used in this case.
Which of the following statements about bottle-mouth caries is correct?
A. The syndrome is distinguished by protruding upper front teeth, resulting from sucking on a hard nipple.
B. Giving a bottle of milk or juice at naptime or bedtime predisposes the child to this syndrome.
C. The syndrome can be prevented by breast-feeding.
D. Giving the child juice in the bottle instead of milk at bedtime prevents this syndrome.
B. Giving a bottle of milk or juice at naptime or bedtime predisposes the child to this syndrome.
Sweet liquids pooling in mouth during sleep cause dental caries.
A parent has a 2-year-old in the clinic for a well-child checkup. Which of the following statements by the parent would indicate to the nurse that the parent needs more instruction regarding accident prevention?
A. "We locked all the medicines in the bathroom cabinet."
B. "We turned the thermostat down on our hot water heater."
C. "We placed gates at the top and bottom of the basement steps."
D. "We stopped using the car seat now that my child is older."
D. "We stopped using the car seat now that my child is older."
A car seat should be used until child weighs 40 pounds, at approximately 4 years of age. After that point, a booster seat that complies with federal safety guidelines should be used. Seat belts must be used with the booster seat.
Poisoning in toddlers can best be prevented by doing what?
A. Consistently using safety caps
B. Storing all poisonous substances in a locked cabinet
C. Keeping ipecac syrup in the home
D. Storing poisonous substances out of reach
B. Storing all poisonous substances in a locked cabinet
This is an appropriate action.
The parents of a 4-year-old girl are worried because she has an imaginary playmate. The nurse should respond on the basis of the knowledge that:
A. a psychosocial evaluation is indicated.
B. an evaluation of possible parent-child conflict is indicated.
C. having imaginary playmates is normal and useful at this age.
D. having imaginary playmates is abnormal after about age 2 years.
C. having imaginary playmates is normal and useful at this age.
Imaginary playmates are a part of normal development at this age.
The nurse would expect that most children would be using sentences of six to eight words by what age?
A. 18 months
B. 24 months
C. 3 years
D. 5 years
D. 5 years
Children can make sentences of 6 to 8 words at this age. Most will use all parts of speech and construct sentences of the length an adult would use.
During a well-child visit, the father of a 4-year-old boy tells the nurse that he is not sure whether his son is ready for kindergarten. His birthday is close to the cutoff date and he has not attended preschool. Which of the following is the nurse's best recommendation?
A. Start kindergarten
B. Perform developmental screening
C. Observe a kindergarten class
D. Postpone kindergarten and go to preschool
B. Perform developmental screening
A developmental screening will provide the necessary information to help the family determine readiness.
When preparing parents to teach their children about human sexuality, the nurse should emphasize which of the following?
A. A parent's words may have a greater influence on the child's understanding than the parent's actions.
B. Parents should determine exactly what the child wants to know before answering a question about sex.
C. Parents should avoid using correct anatomic terms because they are confusing to the preschooler.
D. Parents should allow children to satisfy their sexual curiosity by playing "doctor."
B. Parents should determine exactly what the child wants to know before answering a question about sex.
It is important that the parent answer the question that the child is curious about and not redirect the child's focus by relaying higher level information than was requested.
Ashley, age 4 years, is afraid of dogs. The nurse should recommend which of the following to her parents to help her with this fear?
A. Keep her away from dogs.
B. Buy her a stuffed dog toy.
C. Force her to touch a dog briefly.
D. Let her watch other children play with a dog.
D. Let her watch other children play with a dog.
The parents should actively seek ways to deal with fear. By observing other children at play with dogs, the child can learn to adapt.
A 4-year-old boy has been having increasingly more frequent angry outbursts in preschool. He is very aggressive toward the other children and the teachers. This behavior has been a problem for approximately 8 to 10 weeks. His parent asks the nurse for advice. Which of the following is the most appropriate intervention?
A. Explain that this is normal in preschoolers, especially boys.
B. Refer the child for professional help.
C. Talk to the preschool teacher to obtain validation for behavior that the parent reports.
D. Encourage the parent to try more consistent and firm discipline.
B. Refer the child for professional help.
This is not expected behavior; the child should be referred to a competent professional to deal with his aggression.
At bedtime, Kimberly, age 4 years, lies down and sleeps without any parental intervention. She sometimes wakes her parents at night by screaming, thrashing, sweating, and is apparently frightened. Yet she is not aware of her parents' presence when they check on her. This is most likely which of the following?
A. Nightmare
B. Night terror
C. Seizure activity
D. Sleep apnea
B. Night terror
During night terrors the child is only partially aroused; therefore, she does not remember her parents' presence.
The parents of 9-year-old twin children tell the nurse, "They have filled up their bedroom with collections of rocks, shells, stamps, and cars." The nurse should recognize that this is which of the following?
A. Indicative of giftedness
B. Indicative of typical "twin" behavior
C. Characteristic of cognitive development at this age
D. Characteristic of psychosocial development at this age
C. Characteristic of cognitive development at this age
Classification skills are developed during the school-age years. This age group enjoys sorting objects according to shared characteristics.
Which of the following best describes the 4-year-old's concept of death?
A. Death is temporary.
B. Death is permanent.
C. Death is personified in various forms.
D. Death is inevitable at some age.
A. Death is temporary.
Death is seen as a temporary departure.
A 2-year-old child who is ventilator dependent will be discharged soon. The family expresses concern that the child might change the ventilator settings by exploring the control knobs and buttons. The nurse should do which of the following?
A. Teach the child not to touch the controls.
B. Explain that the child cannot be left alone because of the risk of changing settings.
C. Recommend ways to cover the controls to reduce the risk of the child changing settings.
D. Reassure the family that developmentally the child is unable to change settings.
C. Recommend ways to cover the controls to reduce the risk of the child changing settings.
If the equipment does not have "lock-out" capabilities, then clear plastic covers and tape should be applied.