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95 Cards in this Set

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What are bone markings?
Surface features that indicate characteristic external and internal features.
What axis of the body does the axial skeleton form?
The longitudinal axis
How many bones does the axial skeleton contain?
80 bones
What are the subdivisions of the axial skeleton?
They are the skull, thoracic cage, and the vertebral column.
What are the 7 associated bones to the skull?
They are 6 auditory ossicles and the hyoid bone.
What are the general functions of the axial skeleton?
They are to support and protect the organ systems in the brain, spinal and ventral cavities, provides surface area for the attachment of muscles that adjust positions of the neck, perform respiratory movements and stabilize or position elements in the appendicular skeleton.
What are the functions of the bones of the skull?
To protect the brain and support delicate organs involved in vision, hearing, balance, olfaction (smell), and gustation (taste).
How many bones make up the skull?
22 bones.
How many bones are in the cranium?
8 bones
How many facial bones are there?
14 bones.
What are the divisions of the bones in the skull?
The cranium, the facial bones and 7 associated bones.
What are auditory ossicles?
Tiny bones involved in sound detection that are encased by the temporal bones of the cranium.
How is the hyoid bone connected to the skull?
It is connected to the inferior surface by ligaments.
What is the cranial cavity?
A fluid-filled chamber that cushions and supports the brain.
What does the outer surface of the cranium provide?
An extensive area for the attachment of muscles that move the eyes, jaws and head.
What are the bones of the cranium?
The frontal bone, parietal bones, occipital bone, temporal bones, sphenoid bone, and ethmoid bone.
Which cranium bones are paired?
The parietal bones and temporal bones.
Which cranium bones are singular?
The frontal bone, occipital bone, sphenoid bone and ethmoid bone.
What does the frontal bone of the cranium form?
The forehead and the roof of the orbits.
What are orbits?
The bony recesses that contain the eyes.
What is a supraorbital foramen?
An opening that pierces the bony ridge above each orbit.
What do supraorbital foramen form?
A passageway for blood vessels and nerves passing to or from the eyebrows and eyelids.
What do frontal sinuses do?
Communicate with the nasal cavity. They make the frontal bone lighter and produce mucus that moistens and cleans the nasal cavities.
What are frontal sinuses?
They are air-filled internal chambers in the frontal bone.
What is the infraorbital foramen?
An opening for a major sensory nerve from the face.
What do the parietal bones form?
The roof and superior walls of the cranium.
Where are the parietal bones located?
They're posterior to the frontal bone.
Where do the parietal bones interlock?
At the saggital suture.
Where is the saggital suture located?
The midline of the cranium where the parietal bones connect.
Where is the coronal suture?
Its located where the parietal bones and the frontal bone interlock/connect.
What does the occipital bone form?
The posterior and inferior portions of the cranium.
Where does the occipital bone connect/interlock with the parietal bones?
At the lambdoidal suture.
What does the foramen magnum connect?
It connects the cranial cavity with the spinal cavity
What foramen does the spinal cord pass through to connect with the inferior portion of the brain?
The foramen magnum.
Where are the occipital condyles located?
On either side of the foramen magnum.
What are the occipital condyles sites of?
They're sites of articulation between the skull and the vertbral column.
Where are the temporal bones located?
Below the parietal bones and contributing to the sides and base of the cranium.
Where do the temporal bones interlock with the parietal bones?
At the squamous suture.
Where does the external acoustic canal lead?
To the tympanum.
What anatomical landmarks are located in the temporal bones?
The external acoustic canal, the mandibular fossa, the mastoid processand the styloid process.
What is another name for the eardrum?
The tympanum.
What does the eardrum seperate?
The external acoustic canal from the middle ear cavity.
What does the middle ear cavity contain?
The auditoy ossicles or ear bones.
Where is the mandibular fossa?
Anterior to the external acoustic canal.
What is the mandibular fossa?
A transverse depression
What does the mandibular fossa mark?
It marks the point of articulation with the mandible.
What is the mandible?
The lower jaw.
Where is the mastoid process?
The prominent bulge that is posterior and inferior to the entrance of the external acoustic canal.
What does the mastoid process provide?
It provides a site for the attachment of musles that rotate or extend the head.
Where is the styloid process?
It is next to the base of the mastoid process.
What is the styloid process attached to?
It's attached to ligaments that support the hyoid bone.
What does the styloid process anchor?
It anchors muscles associated with the tongue and pharynx.
What does the sphenoid bone form?
It forms part of the floor of the cranium.
What are functions of the sphenoid bone?
It unites the cranial and facial bones, and it braces the sides of the skull.
Where are the sphenoidal sinuses?
In the central region of the sphenoid bone.
What is a central depression that is on the ends of the sphenoid bone?
The sella turcica.
What does the sella turcica enclose?
The pituitary gland.
Where is the ethmoid bone located?
Anterior to the sphenoid bone.
What does the ethmoid bone form?
It forms parts of the cranial floor, medial surfaces of the orbit of each eye, and the roof and sides of the nasal cavity.
Where is the crista galli located?
It's the porminent ridge that projects above the superior surface of the ethmoid bone.
What do holes in the cribriform plate do?
They permit the passage of the olfactory nerves (smell)
Where are the ethmoidal sinuses located?
In the lateral portions of the ethmoid bone.
What projections extend into the nasal cavity toward the nasal septum?
The superior and middle nasal conchae.
What does the nasal septum seperate?
The nasal wall seperates the nasal cavity into left and righ portions.
What is a function of the superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae?
To slow and break up the airflow through the nasal cavity, Also they dirct air into contact with olfactory (smell) receptors.
Where is the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone located?
It extends inferiorly from the crista galli, passing between the conchae.
What does the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone contribute to?
It contributes to the nasal septum.
What are the functions of the facial bones?
To protect and support the entrances to the digestive and respiratory tracts
What kind of attachment sites are the facial bones?
They're attachment sites for muscles that control our facial expressions and help us manipulate food.
What is the only moveable facial bone?
The mandible
What is the only facial bone that the maxillary bones do not articulate with?
The mandible
What do the maxillary bones form?
They form the floor and medial portion of the rim of the orbit, the walls of the nasal cavity and the anterior roof of the mouth.
What is another name for the roof of the mouth?
The hard palate or bony palate
How are the maxillary sinuses helpful?
They lighten the portion of the maxillary bones above embedded teeth
Can infections of the gums or teeth spread to the maxillary sinuses?
Yes
What do the palatine bones form?
The posterior suface of the hard palate
What do the superior surfaces of the horizontal portion of each palatine bone contribute to?
The floor of the nasal cavity
What does the superior tip of the vertical portion of each palatine bone form?
Part of the floor of each orbit
What part of the vomer articulates with the palatine bones?
The inferior margin of the vomer
What does the vomer support?
A prominent partition that forms part of the nasal septum along with the ethmoid bone
What articulates to form the lateral wall of the orbit?
The zygomatic bones, frontal bone and maxilla
What processes form the zygomatic arch?
The temporal and zygomatic processes
What is the zygomatic cheek bone known as?
The cheekbone
What do the nasal bones form?
The bridge of the nose midway between the orbits
What bones do the nasal bones articulate with?
The frontal and maxillary bones
Where are the lacrimal bones located?
Within the orbit on its medial surface.
What bones do the lacrimal bones articulate with?
Frontal, ethmoid and maxillary bones.
What does the shape of the inferior nasal conchae help?
Helps slow air flow and deflects arriving air toward the olfactory (smell) receptors
Where do the inferior nasal conchae project from?
The lateral walls of the nasal cavity
What are olfactory receptors and where are they located?
They're smell receptors and they are found near the upper portions of the nasal cavity
What bones does the nasal complex include?
The bones that form the superior and lateral walls of the nasal cavities and the sinusues that drain into them
What 2 bones form the bony portion of the nasal septum?
The ethmoid bone and the vomer
What does the nasal septum seperate?
The left and right portions of the nasal cavity.
What bone gives the nose ots shape?
The maxillary bones
What is the strongest facial bone?
The mandible.