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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
a characteristic determined by a gene(s)
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
different forms of gene.Most cells in your body have 2 alleles for every trait
the portion of DNA on a chromosome that directs the making of a specific protein, therefore controlling traits
an organism that always produces the same traits in offspring purebred=homozygous
dominant allele
the allele that is always expressed(visible)
recessive allele
the allele that is only expressed when it is coupled with another recessive allele
a mathematical prediction. These predictions are based on the results of many trials, with very large test groups, that produce repeatable results
punnett square
a square that helps one predict the outcome of a gene cross.
- dominant and recessive alleles are represented by letters
-a CAPITAL letter= the dominant allele

-a lower case letter=recessive allele
the "type of genes" an organism has. the genotype is expressed in letters. EX:HH,Hh,hh
two alleles for a trait that is identical. Ex:HH, or hh
two alleles for a trait that is different. Ex:Hh
the trait that is SHOWN(its what you see)in an organism as a result of its genotype.
Ex:TT and Tt=tall. tall is the phenotype.
incomplete dominance
when neither allele is completely dominant over the other, and as a result, a phenotype unlike either allele is produced.
EX:red flowers(RR)times white flowers(rr)= pink flowers(Rr)(not like paint!!)
-when incomplete dominance is a factor, it is shown in the heterozygous genotype.
remember:Not like paint!!!
when both alleles are expressed equally, and neither allele is dominant over the other.
EX:human blood type(ABO)
multiple genes that influence one trait.
EX:eye color, skin color, finger prints,height, hair color,etc...
sex determination
-the chromosomes that determine an organism's sex.
-human eggs only have the sex chromosome X
-human sperm can only have either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome.
a tool for tracing the occurrence of a trait in a family.