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25 Cards in this Set

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Define Learning.
A process that produces a change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experiences.
Define Conditioning.
Process of learning association between environmental events and behavioral responses.
What are 3 basic types of learning?
1-Classical Conditioning

2-Operant Conditioning

3-Observational Learning
Who was the person that discovered Classical Conditioning? And how did he discover it?
-Ivan Pavlov
-By experiencing with his dogs.
Define Classical Conditioning.
Process of learning an association between two stimuli.
What are 2 factors that can affect the strenght of a classically conditioned response?
-Frequency

-Timing
Define Stimulus Generalization.
The ability to respond to a new stimuli.
Define Stimulus Discrimination.
The ability to distinguish between two stimuli, responding to only one stimulus but not the other.
Define Extinction.
The gradual weakening and apparent disapperance of the conditioned response after repeated exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
Define Spontaneous Recovery.
The reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response following a rest period when the conditioned stimulus is again presentend.
Classical conditioning can be used to create a conditioned emotional response to a previously neutral stimulus by....
...pairing the neutral stimulus with a stimulus that naturally produces the emotion.
What occured with "Little Albert?"
The sight of a white rat (CS) which was at first a neutral stimulus paired with the loud noise (UCS) and the fear Little Albert felt with the loud noise (UCR) resulted in the fear experienced to the white rat after conditioning had taken place (CR)
Explain Taste Aversion.
It is a classically conditioned avoidance of a particular food that develops when the subject becomes ill after eating it.

-Only has to happen once.
Explain Biological Prepardness.
Refers to the idea that organisms are given an inclination beforehand to form associations between certain stimuli and responses.
Define Operant Conditioning.
The basic learning process that involves changing the probability that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response.


Explains how we acquire everyday voluntary behaviors.
What did B.F. Skinner say?
The most important form of learning was demostrated by new behaviors that were actively sent by the organism.
What does Reinforcement mean?
The occurance of a stimulus/event following a response that increases the likeihood of that response being repeated.
Explain Positive Reinforcement.
Consequences that the subject likes causes an increase in behavior.
Explain Negative Reinforcement.
Causes an increase in behavior avoiding punishment.
What do the Negative and Positive Reinforcements have in common?
They both increase the probability of the behavior occuring again.
What is the difference between Negative and Positive Reinforcements?
The positive reinforcement has the addition of a reinforcing stimulus


And Negative reinforcement involves the removal of a punishing stimulus.
What is the Primary Reinforcer?
Doesn't have to be taught
What is the Conditioned Reinforcer?
learned by classically conditioning by pairing secondary with primary.
Explain Punishment.
Process where a behavior is followed by a consequence that decreases the occurance of that behavior.
What 2 things are important when it comes to punishment?
Timing of delivery (must come right after behavior is performed)

Consistancy of delivery (shaping)