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32 Cards in this Set

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king of spain; defender of Catholicism against the Muslims of the Ottoman Empire and the Protestants of Europe; he inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies; in 1580 he seized the Portugese kingdom including strongholds in Africa, India, and the East Indies; in 1588 he launched the Spanish Armada against England, but his fleet was defeated, seriously weakening Spain
Philip II
medieval association of merchants and craftsmen
guild
led seven Protestant northern provinces of the Netherlands to their independence from Spain in 1579; they became the United Provinces of the Netherlands
William of Orange
a republic in which each province had an elected governor, and practiced religious toleration; the Dutch trading empire provided its economic power and stability
United Provinces of the Netherlands
Dutch artist who painted wealthy middle-class merchants and group portraits that showed the individuality of each man by capturing his distinctive facial expression and posture
Rembrandt van Rijn
a king or queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of society
absolute monarchs
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and therefore answerable only to God
divine right
french protestants
huguenots
huguenot who became Henry IV, the first king of the Bourbon dynasty in France; he chose to give up Protestantism and become a Catholic, but declared that the huguenots could live in peace in France, ending religious wars between Catholics and Huguenots in France
Henry of Navarre
a 1598 declaration in which the French King Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some french cities
Edict of Nates
leader of the Catholic Church in France who was appointed the minister of the French government under King Louis XIII; he forbade Protestant cities from having walls around them, and ordered nobles to take down their fortified castles, and tried to make France the strongest state in Europe
Cardinal Richelieu
a philosophy based on the idea that nothing can be known for certain
skepticism
the most powerful ruler in French history; he weakened the power of the nobles by excluding them from his councils, and increased the power of the intendants; he was devoted to helping France attain economic, political, and cultural brillance; he was unsuccessful in attempts to conquer the Netherlands
King Louis XIV
a French government official appointed by the monarch to collect taxes and administer justice
intendant
minister of finance under Louis XIV; he protected France's industries by placing a high tariff on goods from other countries, and encouraged people to migrate to France's colony in Canada; he wanted France to be able to manufacture everything it needed instead of relying on imports
Jean Baptiste Colbert
a conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1713, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France
War of Spanish Succession
a European conflict over religion and territory for power among ruling families lasting from 1618 to 1648
Thirty Years War
Empress of Austria who decreased the power of the nobility, and limited the amount of labor that nobles could forcethe peasants to do; she led her army against Britian and Prussia in the Seven Years War
Maria Theresa
Prussian emperor who forced the Seven Years War by attacking Saxony, an Austrian ally; Austria, France, and Russia allied against Britian and Prussia
Frederick the Great
a conflict in Europe, North America, and India, lasting from 1756 to 1763, in which the forces of Britian and Prussia battled those of Austria, France, and other countries
Seven Years War
the first Russian ruler with the title czar or "caesar"; he won great victories, added lands to Russia and gave Russia a code of laws from 1547-1560, during his "good period;" during his "bad period" after his wife died in 1560, he organized his own police force to hunt down and murder people that he considered traitors; he executed many boyars and their families, and gave their land to those who had remained loyal to him; in 1581 he killed his oldest son and heir
Ivan the Terrible
a land owning noble of Russia
boyar
was 24 years old when he became the sole ruler of Russia; he journeyed to Europe to learn about European customs and industrial techniques; he brought the Russian Orthodox Church under state control, abolished the office of patriarch, and modernized his army with European tactics and European weapons; he built a new capital city at St. Petersburg on the Baltic to give Russia a "window on the sea"
Peter the Great
an adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of Western-especially Europe or America-countries
Westernization
English King that was brought to trial by Parliament for treason; he had promised not to imprison subjects without due cause, not to levy taxes without Parliament's consent, not to house soldiers in private homes, and not to impose martial law in peacetime; he ignored these promises, dismissed Parliament and refused to call it back into session, and offended Puritans; Parliament found him guilty and sentenced him to death
Charles I
a conflict, lasting from 1642 to 1649, in which Putitan supporters of Parliament battled supporters of England's monarchy
English Civil War
Puritan leader in Parliament that became the leader of England when King Chales I was put to death; in 1649 he abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords, established commonwealth, sent the remaining members of Parliament home, and established himself as a military dictator; he favored religious toleration for all Christians except Catholics, and even welcomed Jews
Oliver Cromwell
the period of Charles II's rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government
restoration
a document requiring that a prisoner can be brought before a court or judge so that it can be decided whether his or her imprisonment is legal
habeas corpus
the bloodless overthrow of the English King James II and his replacement by William and Mary
glorious revolution
a system of governing in which the ruler's power is limited by law
constitutional monarchy
a group of advisors or ministers chosen by the head of a country to help make government decisions
cabinet