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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Working Memory
The use of short term memory as a temporary store for information needed to accomplish a particular task
Brown-Peterson Task
Info in STM is rapidly lost unless its rehearsed
-3 consonants presented
- # presented & subjects counted backwards by 3's to prevent them from rehearsing
-Light appears after so many seconds signalling recall
-Recall decreases as the delay of light increases
-Rapid forgetting implies we must rehearse verbal info to keep it available in STM
Decay vs. Interference Theory
DECAY-Info is spontaneously lost overtime, even without interference
INTERFERENCE-Forgetting occurs because other material interferes with the info in memory
- If memory decays overtime, then amount of recall should be determined by the length of the retention interval
- If memory is disrupted by interference, then recall should be determined by the # of interfering items
Retroactive Interference
Forgetting that occurs because of interference from material encountered AFTER learning
Proactive Interference
Forgetting that occurs because of interference from material encountered BEFORE learning
Release from Proactive Interference
Reducing proactive interference by having info be dissimilar from earlier material
-Items that are likley to interfere with each other should be studied at different times rather than during a single session
Memory Span
The number of correct items that people can immediately recall from a sequence of items
-Magic # 7
A cluster of items that has been stored as a unit in long term memory
-Can help overcome limited capacity in STM
Chunking & Chess Expertise
DeGroot - The difference in skill between chess masters & less players results more from differences in perception and memory than from differences in how they planned moves
-Asked to reproduce chess board
Weaker-- 40%
--Master players depended on ability to code pieces into familiar groups (chunks) - Have more chunks and larger chunks--10,000-100,000
Acoustic & Semantic Codes
ACOUSTIC-Memory code based on the sound of the stimulus - Speech Based - STM
SEMANTIC-Memory code based on the meaning of the stimulus--Meaning Based - LTM
Acoustic Confusion
An error that sounds like the correct answer
-Easy for confusion to occur when all letters in a sequence sound alike
Any of the basic sounds of a language that are combined to form speech
-Some letters are represented by several phonemes because they can be pronounced in different ways - Letter A
-Account for acoustic confusions because words that sound alike usually have phonemes in common
Self-Terminating vs. Exhaustive Search
Self-Terminating--A search that stops as soon as the test item is successfully matched to an item in the memory set

Exhaustive--A search that continues until the test item is compared with all items in the memory set
Phonological Loop
Component of working memory model that Maintains & Manipulates Acoustic Info
2 Components
(1)Phonological store for holding verbal info
(2)Rehearsal mechanism that keeps info active in store
Visuospatial Sketchpad
Maintains & Manipulates Visual/Spatial Info
-not well understood
-not clear how we rehearse visual images
Central Executive
Manages the use of working memory
-Decision making component of working memory
-Role in when people have to reach conclusions in a logical reasoning task