Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Areas of the world with high population densities
-East Asia
-South Asia
-Eastern seaboard of North America
General Conclusions of World Population Distribution
1. Nearly 90% of the population lives North of the equator

2. Population is not uniformly distributed

3. There is lower population at high elevations
Worlds Five Most Populous Countries
1. China
2. India
3. US
4. Indonesia
5. Brazil
Will China stil be most populous country by 21st century? If not, then which nation?

Carrying Capacity
# of people an area can support on a sustained basis given prevailing technology
Doubling Time
The time it will take a country to double its population, at current growth rates
J-Curve of Population Growth

will stabilize


about 8-9 billion
J-Curve of Population Growth

Increase Dramatically
- India
- Indonesia
- Pakistan
- Nigeria
- Japan
- Bangladesh

Decreased Dramatically
- Russia

Remaining fairly constant
- US
- China
What % of world's growth is expected to be in developing countries between now and the point of stabilization?
Demographic Transition Model

5 Stages
1. High BR , High DR
little or no pop. growth

2. High BR , declining DR
high pop. growth

3. Declining BR , low DR
high pop. growth

4. Low BR , low DR
little or no pop. growth

5. DR in excess of BR
pop. decline

in less developed countries, BR is falling faster than DR
Changes in Behavior and Fertility

Historically high BR
- shorter life expectancy
-early marriage
-early child bearing
-high fertility due to high mortality
Changes in Behavior and Fertility

Currently lower BR
-longer life expectancy
-age at marriage rising
-later childbearing
-higher child survival rate
- education, employment opportunities, political participation
-lower fertility rates
Increased Status of Women
tends to be an inverse/ negative relationship between education and income vs. birth rates
Best determinants of lowered fertility rates
1. income/ wealth

2. education
Cairo Plan
1994- Cairo, Egypt

150 countries

focused on increasing the status of women in less developed countries where BR were high
Population Measures

Crude Birth Rate
CBR = # of live births per 1,000 population in a given year

CBR = (live births/ total population) x 1000

lower rates in more developed countries

>30 is high <10 is low
Crude Birth Rate

Why is it called crude?
- we don't know the composition of the population

-we are not assessing the population at risk of giving birth

-not age and gender specific
Population Measures

Total Fertility Rate
average # of children a woman will bear during her childbearing years (15-49), given current age-specific fertility rates

gender and age specific
Why don't we use TFR more?
many countries don't keep gender and age data
What is the TFR that will just sustain the population so there is no growth or decline?
2.1 - 2.5
Crude Death Rate
CDR = # of deaths per 1,000 population in a given year

CDR = (deaths/ total population) x 1000

less developed countries have a lower CDR b/c they have a younger pop. (not b/c they have better nutrition or health care)
Aged Dependency Ratio
ADR = (total population 65+) / (total population 15-64)

as ADR increases, it puts more pressure on the youth
ADR in EU countries
currently .25 (higher than the US)

by 2025, 1/3 = .33

by 2050, 1/2 = .5
Youth Dependency Ratio
YDR = (total pop. 0-14) / (total pop. 15-64)
Rate of Natural Increase
RNI = (CBR- CDR)/ 10

US: .6%

Negative RNI
Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Bulgaria, Latvia, Hungary, Germany

Italy RNI = 0 stability
Crude Density
CD = Total Population / Total Land Area
Physiological Density
PD = Total Population / Total Arable (able to be farmed) Land Area
Which will be a higher number: crude or physiological density?
Issues related to high YDR
need large # of items and quickly
- jobs, education/schools, housing, food supply, health care
Sex Ratio
proportion of males to females in a region or country

Males / Females x 1000
Biological Sex Ratio
at birth

105 M/ 100 F
Life Course Sex Ratio
total population, all years

100 M/ 105-106 F

women have higher survival rates
Sex Ratio in China
Life Course SR = 100M / 93.8 F
- female pop. is missing about 60 million

Biological SR = 119 M / 100 F
- a lot more boys being born b/c of a cultural preference
Reasons for Imbalanced sex ratio
1. abortion
2. infanticide
3. neglect
Population Pyramids- occurances you can see
government policies, wars, postwar "baby booms", large migrations, disease, life expectancies
Maine Population
relative old population

getting older

CBR = 11 CDR = 9.9

US: CBR = 14 CDR = 8

gap between CDR and CBR is narrowing--> further along the demographic transition model
Profile of a Maine out-migrant
aspirations for college
from rural area w/ good schools, few job opportunities
parents upper-middle class, college educated
- in-migrants to Maine in 1970s