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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an antimicrobial drug?
chemically synthesized drugs that inhibit growth or kill microorganisms.
Who is Paul Erlich?
concept of selective toxicity (toxic to microbe); discovered salvarsan to fight syphilis
Who is Gerhard Domagk?
Found treatment for streptococci
What are antibiotics?
naturally created by molds and bacteria.
Who is Alexander Fleming?
Discovery of PCN, unable to isolate; grew colonies of staph near mold
Who was Ernst Chain and Howard Florey?
Purified and mass produced PCN
Who was Selman Waksman?
isolated antibiotic streptomycin from soil bacteria streptomyces griseus
What are modern antibiotics?
derive from bacteria and mold. selected strains are incubated and then extracted and purified and altered to increase stability
What are semi-synthetic antibiotics?
antibiotics that have been altered chemically to give new derivatives with new properties. vary by side chain
What are the natural PCNs?
Pen G and Pen V extracted from penicillum
What is methicillin?
semi-synthetic penicillinase resistant. treats s. aureus
What is ampicillin?
semi-synthetic broad spectrum also acid resistant
What is amoxicillin?
identical to ampicillin but longer 1/2 life= less doses
What is antimicrobial selective toxicity?
drug causes more harm to microorganisms than humans, attacks structures not found in humans
What is therapeutic index?
toxicity of a given drug. more selective toxic the higher the therapeutic index.
What does a bacteriostatic do?
rely on normal hosts immune defenses to destroy once growth has been inhibited. ie. sulfa drugs
What does a bacteriocidal do?
kills bacteria when host defenses cant
What are broad spectrum antiobiotics?
affect a wide range of bacteria.
adv= trmt of life threatening when no time to culture
disadv= kills normal flora
ex. amoxicillin, ampicillin
What are narrow spectrum antibiotics?
limited use requires identification of bacteria, less disruption to normal flora ex. isoniasid
What is 1/2 life and excretion of drug?
longer 1/2 life of drug less frequency of doses to maintain effective level
What is the blood-brain barrier?
be able to reach cerebrospinal fluid
ex. treat menigitis or encephalitis
What is unstable in acid mean?
can't be taken by mouth
Why are drugs given in combination?
antiobiotics given in a cocktail to treat disease, multiple types of antibiotics targeting different things
What is an allergic adverse reaction?
allergies= pcn causes rash, fever, anaphylactic shock
What is a toxic adverse reaction?
high concentrations;
streptomycin= kidney damage, deafness
chloramphenicol= aplastic anemia
What is suppression of normal flora?
antibiotic associated colitis (infection of colin), yeast infections
What are targets of antibacterial drugs?
inhibition of cell wall, protein synthesis, nucleic acid syn,metabolic pthways, cell membrane
What are B-Lactam drugs?
interferes with formation of peptide side chains by inhibiting PBP (PCN binding proteins )destroy cell wall
What are examples of B-Lactam drugs?
vancomycin- used rarely
bacitracin- topically only
What drugs inhibit protein synthesis?
aminoglycosides effective against mainly gram - but some gram +
What are examples of protein synthesis inhibitors?
streptomycin, neomycin (eye infections) tetracyclines (chlamydias and ricketssias) macrolides (walking pneumonia) Chloramphenicol
What are inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis?
targets gyrase (supercoils DNA) or RNA polymerase
What are examples of nucleic acid inhibitors?
flouroquinolones= cipro (anthrax) (targets gyrase)
rifamycins=used in cocktail (targets RNA)
What are inhibitors of metabolic pathways?
interfers with synthesis of compounds; ie. sulfa competes with PABA and prevents synthesis of folic acid
What are inhibitors of cell membranes?
alters membrane permeability causes leakage of contents. ie. polymyxin (toxic, topical only) (bacterial pink eye, skin infections)
What are those that interfere with essential processes?
interefers with cell wall synthesis; ie. isoniasid and etambul (inhibit formation of mycolic acid) rifomycin (RNA)
What is selective advantage?
population of bacteria treated with antibioitics, resistant ones survive and clone. selective pressure=antibiotic
What are drug inactivating enzymes?
What is alteration in target molecule? (mechanism of resistance)
drug cant bind to target, mutation in PBP causing PCN unable to attack
What is decreasing uptake of drug? (mech. of resistance)
bacteria alter permeability preventing entering of cell
What is increased elimination of drug? (mech. of resistance)
efflux pump excretes drugs out of cell. most dangerous b/c of resistance to most drugs
What is innate resistance?
intrinsic resistance (born with) ie. mycoplasma lacks cell wall= resistant to PCN
What is acquired resistance?
heavy use of antibiotics leading to multiple resistances
What is spontaneous mutation?
vertical evolution= passed onto daughter cells
What is gene transfer?
horizontal evolution, plasmids transfer resistance through conjugation
What are examples of emerging resistance?
entercocci=vancomycin resistant; s. aureus= methicillin resistant; mycobacterium tuberculosis= 1st line drug resistance
How do we slow emergence and spread?
physicians and health workers; patients; public education; global impacts