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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how many elements exist naturaly?
92
potassium
K
Nitrogen
N
Carbon
C
Sulfer
S
Potassium
K
Magnisium
Mg
Boron
B
chlorine
Cl
Cobalt
Co
atoms
smallest part of an element that still has the properties of the element
electron
negitivly charged particle on the outside of atom
atomic number
number of protons in the atom
how many electrons are in a full outer shell?
2 or 8
oxidation
a reaction that results in the loss of electrons.
ion
an atom that has lost or gained electrons
negitive ion
an atom with more electrons then protons
molecules
a group of atoms
chemical formula for glucose
C6H12O6
oxygen gas
O2
dalton
the weight of one hydrogen atom
what type of bond is sodium chloride?
ionic bond
what kind of bond does Methane have?
covalent
single bond
one pair of electrons shared in a acovalent bond
what type of bond holdsDNA strands together?
Hydrogen bond
element
fundemental substance that connot be broken down.
Sodium
NA
iron
Fe
Oxegen
O
What elements make up 90% of the body's weight?
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
Phosphorus
P
calcium
Ca
Copper
Cu
Zinc
Z
Manganese
Mn
Iodine
I
Proton
a positivly charged particle in the center of the atom
neutron
neutral charge same weight as proton on the inside of the atom
mass number
the total of protons and neutrons
inert elemant
an atom of an element with a full outer shell.
reduction
a reaction that results in the addition of electrons
possitive ion
an atom with with less electrons then protons
isotopes
diffrent nuber of neutrons then the element.
compound
a group of molecules
hydrogen gas
H2
molecular weight
the atomic weights of all atoms involved in the molecule
ionic bond
when the electrons of one atom transfer to another
covalent bond
a bond where two atoms share one or more electrons
double bond
two pairs of electrons shared in a covalent bond
hydrogen bond
a weak bond between protons and free electrons
what type of bond is also know as an electrostatic bond?
hydrogen bond
chemical reaction
when molecules interact to form new bonds
reactants
the molecules that enter into a reaction
products
what is formed in a chemical reaction
acid
a compound that releases hydrogen atoms when placed in water
bases
a compound taht attracts hydrogen atoms when placed in water.
3 strong acids
hydrochloric, sulfiric, nitric
NaOH
sodium hydroxide
KOH
potasium hydroxide
2 strong bases
sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide
pH
the consentrstion of hydrogen ions
pH of less then 7.0
acid
pH of more then 7.0
base
what does each number in the pH system mean compared to the number next to it?
from 7 the decimal point moves one digit. the lower the pH the decimal moves to the right. Above it moves to the left.
what are the 4 major catagories of compounds in living things?
carbs, lipids, protiens, nucleic acids
carbs
structural materisl and energy sorce
what is a carb composed of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen ration ofhydrogen to oxygen 2:1
saccharides
carbs
monosaccharides
simple sugars
glucose
the basic fuel for the body
C6H12O6
glucose
C6H12O6
glucose
glucose
the basic fuel for the body
C6 H12 O6
glucose, fructosee,galactose same formula diffrent arangement
isomer
a molecule that has the same make up but diffrent arrangment
disaccharides
2 monosacchride molecules conected by a covalent bond
maltose
2 glucose resulting from the break down of starch in the mouth and the intestines
sucrose
glucose and fructose. table sugar
lactose
glucose and galactose. Milk sugar
polysaccharides
many monosaccharides together
starches
many glucose units together. storage system for carbs
glycogen
polysaccharide made of glucose. stored in liver
cellulose
polysachride made up of glucose. can only be broken down by a few bactiria. used as roughage in the body.