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35 Cards in this Set

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Why Classify?
To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in logical manner
Binomial Nomenclature
Two-word naming system first word genus-capitalized, second word genus within spacie lowercase, all italics
Genus
A group of closely related species
Linnaeus' System of Classification
Uses seven taxonomic categories to group
Seven taxonomic categories
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, specie
Family
Genera that share many characteristics
Order
broad taxonomic category composed of similar families
Class
composed of similar orders
Phylum
Several different classes
Kindom
Largest and most inclusive of Linn. system
Evolutionary Classification
The strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history
Then vs. Now evol. Class.
Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, not just physical similarites
Derived characters
Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members
Cladogram
Constructed from derived characters, shows the evolutionary relationship among a group of organisms
DNA and RNA
The genes of many organisms show important similarities at the molecular level. Can be used as criteria to determine classification
Molecular Clock
Uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independantly.
Six- Kingdom system of classification
Kindoms Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
Domain
More inclusive category than any other, larger than a kingdom
Three Domains
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Eukarya is composed of...
Protists, fungi, plants, and animals
Bacteria corresponds with...
Kindom Eubacteria
Archaea corresponds with...
Kingdom Archaebacteria
Bacteria
Uni-cellular, prokaryotes, contain cell with peptidoglycan, Autotroph&Hetero, ex:E-coli, strep throat
Eubacteria
ecologically diverse, ranging from free-living soil organisms to deadly parasites
Archaea
Cell wall w/o peptidoglycan, Ex: Metahnogens, halophiles, volcanoes, swamps
Eukarya
All systems that have a nucleus
Protista
Eukaryote, cell wall w/ cellulose or chloro., most unicellular, auto or hetero Ex: amoeba, paramecium, slime molds, giant kelp
Fungi
Eukaryote, cell wall w/ chitin, most multicellular, heterotroph Ex: mushrooms &yeast
Plantae
Eukaryote, cell walls w/ cellulose or chloroplasts, multicellular, autotroph Ex: mosses, ferns, flowering plants
Animalia
Eukaryote, no cell walls, multicellular, hetero Ex: sponges, worms, insects, fish, mammals
How many species?
1.5 million
Taxonomy
to classify organisms with a universally accepted name
Who developed Binomial nomenclature?
A swedish botanist named Carlos Linnaeus
In taxonomy a level of organization is called a...
Taxon
What languages are used in assigning scientific names?
Latin and Greek