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46 Cards in this Set

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Erythropoetin
released from certain cells in the kidney in response to low 02 levels in the blood.

travels in the bloodstream to bone marrow, where it triggers differentiation pf pluripotent cells to erythrocytes.
differentiation
During ____________, erythrocytes produce hemoglobin & lose their nuclei and organelles.
reticulocyte
The last cell stage prior to becoming a mature erythrocyte is the ___________, a RBC w/some ribosomes still present in the cytoplasm, giving the cell a web like or reticular appearance.
iron
folic acid
vit. B12
What are the requirments of erythrocyte production?
Iron
required for syntheis of hemoglobin
stored in liver
released from old erythrocytes
required in diet
Folic acid & B12
necessary for synthesis of DNA

help w/ rapid production of erythrocytes.
erythropoesis
hemoglobin
anemia
A shortage of dietary elements for ____________ can produce either a reduction in amount of __________ per cell or a reduction in the # of erythrocytes in the blood, a condition called ________.
iron deficiency anemia
due to the lack of iron in the diet
erythrocytes are smaller than normal due to decreased amount of hemoglobin per erythrocyte.
Pernicious anemia
due to the lack of vit. B12

larger erythrocytes due to the lack of # of erythrocytes.
hemorrhage
Anemia can also result from ___________ or an abnormally high rate of erythrocyte destruction (hemolysis).
Symptoms of anemia
chronic fatigue
shortness of breath upon exertion
spleen
store blood cells
removes old erythrocytes
have microphages that destroy erythrocytes
hemoglobin is catabolized here
Bilirubin
a yellow compound

after iron is removed, the resulting heme is converted to __________.

travels to liver where it is catabolized further

secreted in bile of S.I. and excreted in feces.

gives feces a brown tinge

some travel to kidneys and are excreted in urine

impart in yellowish color of urine

jaundice
hemoglobin
Iron that is released by __________ catabolism is recycled to form new __________.
Transferrin
transports iron

picks up iron in G.I. tract or spleen & transports in to red bone marrow for erythrocyte synthesis

can be taken to liver to be stored bound to the protein ferritin.
ferritin
a protein that bounds to iron in the liver, spleen, and cells lining of S.I.
Leukocytes
nucleated
possess all normal cellular machinery
Only fully functional in blood
Mobile- can squeese through pores in caps and migrate through tissue.
Defend body against invading microorganisms & foreign materials
Role in immunity
Granulocytes
neutrophils
eosinophils
basophils
Have prominent protein - containing vesicles in their cytoplasm (cytoplasmic granules)
Agranulocytes
monocytes
lymphocytes
do NOT have prominent granules
wright's strain
Each leukocyte type is traditionally identified by its reaction w/ _________ _______, which reveals its distinctive nuclear shape & cytoplasmic color.
Neutrophils
50-80% of leukocytes
Phagocytic - attack paracites invading the body that are too big to engulf.
Mount (attach) to parasites bodies & discharge toxic molecules from cytoplasmic granules
Weak
Damage normal tissue
Trigger allergic reaction
Basophils
Nonphagocytic cells
Release histamine, herapin, that lead to allergic reaction such as hay fever
less than 1% of leukocytes
Monocytes
phagocytosis
macrophages "big eater"
wandering macrophages
fixed macrophages
Lymphocytes
found in interstitial fluid
Lack cell membrane components
B cells
T cells
null cells - natural killer (NK)
Megakarocytes
platelets are colorless cell fragments that arise when portions of long bone marrow cells break off.
Megokarocytes
smaller than erythrocytes
no nucleus
mitochondria
smooth E.R.
cytoplasmic granules
trigger events leading to blood clotting.
hemostasis
mechanisms that stop the bleeding.
hemostasis
vascular spasms
platelet plug
formation of blood clot
vascular spasm
Damaged blood vessel leads to intrinsic mechanisms that trigger vasocontriction
Blood loss is minimized
Platelet plug
platelets (thromocytes) - non nucleated fragments of megakarocytes
"Sticky"
von Willebrand factor (vWF)
platelet adhesion - when blood vessel damage exposes tissue underlying the endothelium
platelet aggregation - ADP changes in platelets to adhere to one another
ADP stimulates the production of Thromboxane A2
Arachidonic acid - gives rise to TXA2
High concentrations of protein (actin & myosin)
Formation of a blood clot
need fibrin
fibrin clots
coagulation cascade - a series of reaction resulting in formation of a fibrin clot
fibrogen
Fibrin molecules stick to each other forming a network of strands
Fibrin stabilizing factor (XIII) links the networks of fibrin.
coagulation factors
plasma proteins which are always present in the plasma in their inactive form, undergo a series of proteolytic activations resulting from hydrolysis of certain peptide bonds.
fibrogen
In clot formation, a filamentous plasma protein converts into its active form fibrin.
Thrombin
catalyzes fibrogen to fibrin
activates XIII
positive feedback for its own activation
additional platelet aggregation
stimulates platelets to secrete several products
Intrinsic pathway
X
thrombin
__________ __________, in clot formation, starts w/ hagemans factor (XII) which is activated by contact of substances in subendothelium (collagen & phospholipids). XII activation leads to factor __ activation, and then leads to activation of _________, and fibrin formation.
Extrinsic pathway
VII & tissue factor
__________ __________, in blood clotting, starts w/ the tissue factor (III) when in contact w/plasma & reacts w/ factors (VII). Active ____ & _______ _______ activates factor X, leads to activatio of thrombin.
factor X
Intrinsic and Extrinsic pathways merge at activation of _______ __ to form a common pathway.
CA2+
PF3
At several steps, ____ & ____ are needed.
PF3
on surface of activated platelets
Phosopholipid necessary for activation of thrombin by intrinsic pathway.
anticoagulants
inhibit blood clotting or coagulations
Factors limiting clot formation
anticoagulants
tissue factor pathway inhibitor
thrombomodulin
protein C
plasmin
plasmin
dissolves blood clots by breaking down fibrin
coagulation factors
Most ___________ _______ are synthesized in the liver, which releases them into the plasma in their inactive form.
Serum
_______ is plasma from which these coagulation factors have been removed.
excessive bleeding
Without coagulation factors, the fibrin clot is not made, and there will be __________ ________ (hemophilia).
Vitamin K
Excessive bleeding will occur when deficiency of _________ _ in diet.