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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Edwin L. Drake
successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil
Bessemer process
a cheap and efficient process for making steel, developed around 1850
Thomas Alva Edison
invented electricity
Christopher Sholes
invented the typewriter
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone
transcontinental railroad
a railroad line linking the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of U.S., completed in 1869
George M. Pullman
built a factory for manufacturing sleepers and other railroad cars on the Illinois prairie
Credit Mobilier
a construction company formed in 1864 by owners of the Union Pacific Railroad, who used it to fraudulently skim off railroad profits for themselves
Munn v. Illinois
an 1877 case in which the Supreme Court upheld states' regulation of railroads for the benefit of farmers and consumers, thus establishing the right of government to regulate private industry to serve the public interest
Interstate Commerce Act
a law, enacted in 1887, that reestablished the federal government's right to supervise railroad activities and created a five-member Interstate Commerce Commission to do so
vertical integration
a process in which Andrew Carnagie bought out his suppliers
horizontal integration
when companies producing similar products merge
Social Darwinism
an economic and social philosophy--supposedly based on the biologist Charles Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection--holding that a system of unrestrained competition will ensure the survival of the fittest
Sherman Antitrust Act
made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries
Samuel Gompers
led the Cigar Makers' International Union to join with other craft unions in 1886
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
an alliance of trade and craft unions, formed in 1886
Eugene V. Debs
made the first major attempt to form such an industrial union
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
a labor organization for unskilled workers, formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905
Mary Harris Jones
the most prominent organizer in the women's labor movement