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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Archetypes
According to Jung, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning.
Behavioral genetics
An interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits.
Behaviorism
A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
Biopsychosocial model
A model of illness that holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
Collective unconscious
According to Jung, a storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past.
Compensation
According to Adler, efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities.
Conflict
A state that occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression.
Conscious
Whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time.
Defense mechanisms
Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt.
Displacement
Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target.
Drive
An internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce the tension.
Ego
According to Freud, the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle.
Extraverts
People who tend to be interested in the external world of people and things.
Factor analysis
Statistical analysis of correlations among many variables to identify closely related clusters of variables.
Fixation
According to Freud, failure to move forward from one psychosexual stage to another as expected.
Frustration
The feeling that people experience in any situation in which their pursuit of some goal is thwarted.
1. Health psychology
The subfield of psychology concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness.
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's systematic arrangement of needs according to priority, which assumes that basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused.
Hindsight bias
The tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out.
Id
According to Freud, the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle.
Identification
Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group.
Incongruence
The degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience.
Introverts
People who tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences.
Model
A person whose behavior is observed by another.
Motivated forgetting
Purposeful suppression of memories.
Need for self-actualization
The need to fulfill one's potential.
Oedipal complex
According to Freud, children's manifestation of erotically tinged desires for their opposite-sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same-sex parent.
Person perception
The process of forming impressions of others.
Personal unconscious
According to Jung, the level of awareness that houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten.
Personality tests
Psychological tests that measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes.
Personality trait
A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations.
Phenomenological approach
The assumption that one must appreciate individuals' personal, subjective experiences to truly understand their behavior.
Pleasure principle
According to Freud, the principle upon which the id operates, demanding immediate gratification of its urges.
Preconscious
According to Freud, the level of awareness that contains material just beneath the surface of conscious awareness that can easily be retrieved.
Projection
Attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another.
Projective tests
Psychological tests that ask subjects to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects' needs, feelings, and personality traits.
Psychoanalytic theory
A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
Psychodynamic theories
All the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces.
Psychosexual stages
According to Freud, developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality.
Punishment
An event that follows a response that weakens or suppresses the tendency to make that response.
Rationalization
Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior.
Reaction formation
Behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings.
Reality principle
According to Freud, the principle on which the ego operates, which seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found.
Reciprocal determinism
The assumption that internal mental events, external environmental events, and overt behavior all influence each other.
Regression
A reversion to immature patterns of behavior.
Rehearsal
The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information to be stored in memory.
Reinforcement contingencies
The circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers.
Reliability
The measurement consistency of a test (or of other kinds of measurement techniques).
Repression
Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.
Response set
A tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions.
Self-actualizing persons
People with exceptionally healthy personalities, marked by continued personal growth.
Self-concept
A collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior.
Self-efficacy
One's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes.
Self-esteem
A person's overall assessment of her or his personal adequacy or worth.
Self-monitoring
The degree to which people attend to and control the impression they make on others in social interactions.
Self-report inventories
Personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior.
Sensation seeking
A generalized preference for high or low levels of sensory stimulation.
Social desirability bias
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
Striving for superiority
According to Adler, the universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges.
Superego
According to Freud, the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong.
Unconscious
According to Freud, thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.