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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Geography can be considered a...
spatial science
Geography involves these 2 things.
Physical and human components (physical landscape and human landscape)
Geography is:
1. Multi-Disciplinary Analysis
2. Spatial Perspective
Spatial Perspective/ Analysis Considers:
Sample of Geographic Research
- Scaled geographies: Nature, place, and the politics of scale
-Ethnic segregation: Measurement, causes, and consequences
-Spatial analysis and modeling for the school district planning problem
-Population crises: from the global to the local
-The emerging geographies of cyberspace
-Geographies of power in the post-cold-war world system
-The geographical dimensions of terrorism
-Race and globablization
Scientific Model for Geographic Study
- Spatial process: CAUSE; explaining, understanding
-Spatial pattern: EFFECT; locating, describing
John Snow
physician (M.D.)

helped understand cholera in London in 1854

located pattern of water pumps and cholera deaths
Places have location, direction, and distance with respect to other places.
Places may be small or large
Size and scale are important

Large scale shows small area in more detail

Small scale shows large area in less detail
Places develop and change with time
built roads and houses
Places interact with other places
Distance decay
Activities that occur in places are rationally structured
Spatial diffusion: spread; depends on population densities, communication methods, transportation systems

Spatial distribution: density, degree of dispersion

Pattern: linear, circular
Places are grouped within regions that can be compared based on their similarities or differences. Regions have:
-spatial extent
-hierarchial arrangement
Region Types
Formal: administrative or politically defined

Functional: area where a region's activities occur

Perceptional: only exists in our mind
Thematic Map
Map of a theme (ex. doctors/ population, cholera outbreaks)
Places have physical structure and cultural content.
physical and cultural landscape
Graduated Circle Map
Changes size according to variations in theme
Dot Map
Each dot represents a certain number
Isopleth Map
Connects equal points of value with lines
Choropleth Map
Shading to represent values
Cartogram Map
Places are sized according to the value of the theme, rather than their actual size (ex. population)
Statistical Map
Numbers or percentages are put right on the map
Mental Map
Only exist in our mind; perceptional region
Global Information Systems (GIS)

Layers of Data
-terrain models
-base mapping
GIS Applications
-4D map techniques for wildlife management
-risk assessment
-helps police fight crimes
2 types of data from GIS
1. Attribute
- date
- name (sampling)
- vegetation type
- quantity
- water body name

2. Spatial (non- attribute)
- location
- extent (time 1)
- extent (time 2)
- origin (distance)
Is a digital computer mapping system a GIS?
No because it isn't able to do spatial analysis
Physical Landscape
The natural elements, systems, and environments of the earth
Cultural Landscape
The human elements, systems, and activities that constitute human use or modification of the physical landscape
Absolute Location
The position of a place according to some precise system of coordinates
Relative Location
The physical and cultural characteristics and attributes of the place itself, as well as its position with respect to other places and their characteristics
Spatial Interaction
The movement of people, ideas and goods within areas or between them
Types of Interaction Models
1. Distance Decay
2. Gravity Model
3. Law of Retail Gravitation
Distance Decay
Waldo Tobler (1930)
- came up with 1st law of geography: everything is related, but near things are more related than distant things

As distance increases, interaction decreases

Reduction in flow or movement between places with increasing distance
Gravity Model
Henry Carey (1793-1879)

IAB = (Population A x Population B) / (distance A to B)^2

As P increases, I increases
As D increases, I decreases
Law of Retail Gravitation
William Riley (1899-1970)

Breaking Point (BP) = (Distance from A to B)/ (1 + (square root of population B/ population A))
Distance Biase
- Near things are favored more than far things

-Migrant (crosses country)/ Mover (stays within country)
Direction Biase
- Favors one direction over another
Network Biase
- The presence or absence of connecting channels which affects the likelihood that spatial interaction will occur
Types of Interaction Biases
1. Distance Biase
2. Direction Biase
3. Network Biase
Types of Networks
1. Branching Network
2. Circuit Network
3. Hierarchy Network
4. Paul Revere's Ride Network
5. Traveling Salesman Network
Branching Network
- low maintenance costs b/c not all places are connected

-low builder costs

-high user costs b/c it is difficult to get from one place to another
Circuit Network
- connection to all points

-lowest user costs

- highest maintenance and builder costs
Hierarchy Network
- best connection between a central node and each other place
Paul Revere's Ride Network
- best path between a beginning point and all other points
Traveling Salesman Network
- best network for a cycle around the points
Activity Space
The area people move within during their regular activities
Aspects of Human Spatial Behavior
1. Space- Time Prism
-people are interested in where we go and how far we are willing to travel

2. Critical Distance
- There's a certain distance we don't mind traveling before the time and distance begins to influence us (horizontal line at beginning of distance decay model)

3. Personal Communication Field
- factors: age, gender, income, education, location, etc.
The permanent relocation of residence and activity space
Perception of Natural Hazards
1. Chronic, low-level events
- global warming, pollution, water toxicity

2. High-consequence, low-probably events
- tornado, meteors, hurricane, flood, etc.

3. Human Reactions (Impact on Population)
Reasons most people don't actually move as a results of natural disasters
1. say it won't happen

2. just happened so won't happen again soon

3. likelihood of personally being affected is low

4. in poor countries, people don't have options to move

5. many hazard zones are scenic places to live

6. b/c people have an investment in that area (friends, relatives, home, etc)
Natural Hazards Case Study
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Internal Migration
Permanent relocation of individuals that occurs with in a country's boundaries
International Migration
Permanent relocation of individuals that crosses an international boundary
Internal Migration

Maine Sprawl
- we're spreading out

-high growth communities account for population growth

-financial consequences

-people leave behind underutilized structures

-lengthening of service routes for police, fire, etc. as people move out to these areas

-environmental/social consequences (air pollution, more runoff into water ways)

-fragmentation of wildlife habitats

-social cost of leaving poor and elderly in the cities
International Migration

US- Mexico Illegal Immigration
- they impact our economy

-if we kicked out all illegal immigrants from the US, goods would be more expensive (fruits, veggies, meat, etc.)

-some undocumented immigrants take jobs away from US citizens

- need health-care, schooling for their children (which is picked up by tax payers)