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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What happend in 1905?
U.S Forest Service created.


Audubon Society founded by private citizens to preserve country's bird species
What happend in 1916?
National Park Service Act creates National Park System and National Park Service.
What happend in 1933?
CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps):

unemployed people to:

-plant trees

-develop and maintain parks and recreation areas

-restore silted waterways

-build levees and dams for flood control

-control soil erosion

-protect wildlife
What did Richard Nixon establish 1970?
the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
What did Richard Nixon support in 1973?
the Endangered Species Act of 1973
1969, Apollo Act led to the..
spaceship earth environmental worldview, reminding us that we had better take care of the earth because it's the only home we have.
What happend between the years 1965-75?
Ecology became a big topic
What happend in the yaers between 1609-1890?
Frontier Era - European colonists.
The 70's were the..
First decade of the environment
Ronald Reagan:
Sagebrush rebel, against environmental improvements.
What was the purpose of the Kyoto Treaty?
To reduce CO2 emissions to avoid global warming.
What did Jimmy Carter start?
Department of Energy
What was created in 1980?
Superfund law: if ever a natural disaster happens, they would have money
What happend in 1978?
Federal Land Policy & Management Act strengthens regulation of public lands by the Bureau of Land Management.

Love Canal, NY, housing development evacuated because of toxic wastes leaking.
What is the Wide-use movement?
1988. An industry backed anti-environmental coalition.
Upton Sinclair:
1906, The Jungle, showed bad working conditions in Chicago Meatpacking Industry, led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act
Ronald Reagan is the..
40th president of the U.S. He cut EPA and research, EPA enforcement dropped by 70%
According to many, who is credited with the founding of Ecology?
George Perkins Marsh
Norman Borlaug:
US environmental activist. Known as the Father of the "green revolution"

-Nobel Peace Prize Winner
Hugh Bennet:
U.S soil conservationist

-1st scientist to recognize soil erosion.
Wendell Barry:
Proponent of a traditional way of life,

critized the industrial farming for its effect on the environment.
The world's population is growing exponentially by..
Globalization is:
communicating on a global basis (computer, cell phone, disease)
Tragedy of the Commons:
1968, Garret Hardin, and idea of common property, free access property.

Large cumulative effect for many people exploiting a free access source.
Solar capital is..
99% of the energy used on earth.
Sustainable yield is..
the highest rate in which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its supply.
5 inter-connected environmental issues are:
1) population growth
2) resource waste
3) poverty
4) loss of biological diversity
5) global climate change
Aldo Leopold:
strong proponent of land ethics

-A Sand County Almanac, published in 1949
What are the five most important environmental issues to be faced in the 21st century?
1) The threat of climate change and ecosystem and economic distruption from enhanced global warming.

2) Groing water shortages and political conflicts over water supplies in many local an regional areas.

3) Continuing population growth

4) Continuing biodiversity loss

5) Continuing poverty
In what year did the explosion of Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine occur?
From 1980-89, what happened?
The rise of a strong anti-environmental movement.
In what year was Times each, Missuri,evacuated and bought by EPA because of dioxin contamination?
In what year did the Montreal Protocol occur?

*Its purpose was to halve emissions of ozone-depleting CFCs signed by 24 counries.
In what year did the Exxon Valdez oil tanker make an accident in Alaska's Prince William Sound?
What year did the industry-bcked wise-use movement establish to weaken and destroy U.S. environmental movemen?
This year, toxic fumes leaking from pestiide plant in Bhopal, India. It killed 6,000 people and injure 50,000-60,000.

What year?
In what year did the scientists discover annual seasonal thinning of the ozone layer above Antarctica?
What year was the Superfund law passsed?

*to clean up abandoned toxic waste dumps.
What are the views of the preservationists?
-keep large areas of public lands untouched so the can be enjoyed today and passed on unspoiled to future generations.
What are the views of the conservationists?
-They see wilderness and other public lands as resources to be used to enhance the nation's economic growth an to proide the greatest benefit to the greatest number of people.

-they view the government should protect these lands from harm by managing them efficiently and scientifically, using the principles of sustainable yield and multiple use.
Between what years did the servere pollution of Lake Erie (killed fish and closed beaches) take place?
Rachel Carson published Silent Spring in ____ to alert the public abou harmful effects of pesticides.
In ____, the Love Canal, NY housing development was evacuated because of toxic wastes leaking from old dumpsite.
In ____, the Nature Conservancy was formed.
In what year was the Yellowstone National Park established?
What two important events took place in 1890?
1) Government declares the country's frontier closed.

2) Yosemite National Park established.
In 1915, what was formed?
the Ecological Society of America
Who was largely responsible for establishing the Yosemite National Park in 1890?
John Muir
What are perpetual resources?
-Renewed continously

-It is expected to last at least 6 billion years as the sun completes its life cycle.
What are renewable resoures?
-can be replenished fairly rapidly (hours or several decades) through natural processes as long as it is not used up faster than it is replaced.

ex. forests, grasslands, wild animals
Sustainable yield:
the highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply.
Nonrenewable resources?
Resources that exist in a fixed quanity or stock in the earth's crust.

ex. energy resources (oil, coal)

metalic mineral resources (iron, copper)

nonmetallic mineral resources (salt, clay)
Nations now face the global threats of ...
1) widespread ocean pollution

2) depletion of ozone in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) that keeps much of the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the earth's surface.

3)global and regional climate change caused by chemicals released into the environment by human activities.
Definition of Acute Poverty:
People cannot meet their basic economic needs.
Gross national income (GNI) is:
the market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced within and outside a country during a year plus net income earned abroad by a country's citizens.
Gross national income in purchasing power parity (GNI PPP):
The market value of a country's GNI in terms of the goods and services it would buy in the US.
Gross domestic product (GDP):
The market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced within a country during a year.
Gross World Product (GWP):
The market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced in the world during a year.
Per capita GNI:
the GNI divided by the total population at mid-year. It gives the average slice of the economic pie per person.
Per capita GNI in purchasing power parity (per capita GNI PPP):
the GNI PPP divided by the total population at mid-year.

This is a better way to make comparisons of people's economic standards by econmic growth.
Slash and burn civilization
To prepare the land for planting, they cleared small patches of tropical forests by cutting down trees and other vegetation and then burning the underbrush.

The ashes fertilized the often nutrient-poor soils in this civilization.
The environmental history of the US can be divided into 4 eras. What are they?
1) tribal

2) frontier

3) conservation

4) environmental
Some of Roosevelt's contributions were:
-more than tripling the size of the national forest reserves.

-designating the Grand Canyon as one of the first 16 national parks.

-persuading Congress to give the president power to designate public land as federal wildlife refuges.
Congress passed the National Park Service Act, which declared the parks were to be maintained in a manner that leaves them unimpaired for future generations.

And establishing the National Park Service to manage the system.

What year was this passed?
When was the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service created?
in 1940, to manage National Wildlife Refuge system and protect endangered species.
Define Planetary Management Worldview?

*Common in the past 50 yrs
Human beings, as the planet's most important and dominant species, can & should manage the planet mostly for their own benefit.

1) We are in charge of nature

2) There is always more.

3) All economic growth is good & the potential for global economic growth is
essentially limitless.

4) Our sucess depends on how well we can understand, control & manage the earth's life support systems for our benefit.
Define Environmental Worldviews.
1) how people think the world works

2) what they think their role in the world should be.

3) what they believe is right and wrong environmental behavior (environmental ethics)
Define nonpoint sources:
Where pollutants come from dispersed sources (difficult to identify).

Ex. runoff of fertilizers & pesticides (farmlands, golf courses)

-pesticides sprayed into the air or blown by the wind into the atmosphere.
Define economic development:
the improvement of living standards by economic growth.
What is the major goal of the wise-use movement?
Preserving national forests and parks.
Who had a strong proponent of "a human's part of nature" philosophy?
Aldo Leopold
The years 1973-74 are best known for what event?
the OPEC oil embargo
Rachel Carson described..
the effects of pesticides in the environment
How many millions of people lived on the North American continent before European settlement?
5-10 million
The industrial revolution was accompanied by a shift from reliance on renewable energy sources to reliance on ________________.
Nonrenewable energy sources.
What happend to the bison population from 1870-1875?
It was reduced by at least 2.5 million
Early hunter gatherers lived in..
Small groups
Who pioneered the scientific forest management?
Gifford Pinchot
What did Abbey Edward do?
Write Desert Solitaire to focus on how the desert was being destroyed as society developed
Garret Hardin:
Tragedy of the commons 1986, overgrazing in Medieval England
Loies Marie Gibbs
-resident of Love Canal

-founded the Citizen Clearinghouse for Hazardous waste which gives aids to communities dealing with toxic waste problems.
Norman Borlaug:
U.S environmental activist. Known as the Father of the "green Revolution";

Nobel Peace Prize Winner
Barry Commoner:
Writings focused on Ozone depletion.

Some writings have focused on Nuclear testing profits over environmental concerns.

Ran for president in 80 as a citizen's party candidate.
Paul Ehrich:

Strong population control advocate.

-founded a company called Zero Population Growth INC.
George W. Bush:
-restricted wetland preservation

-wants to drill for more oil

-less stringent regulations

-ignored Kyoto Protocol

-wants a local watchdog instead of federal watch on environmental issues.
Ralph Nader:
U.S consumer advocate

-promoted the passage of Wholesome Meat Act 1967, helped EPA in 1970, and in 1974, helped passe the Freedom Information Act.
Julian Simon:
Best known for work on population

-Natural resources and immigration.
concerned primarily with setting aside or protecting undisturbed natural areas from harmful human activities.
concerned with using natural areas and wildlife in ways that sustain them for current and future generations of humans and other forms of life.
devoted to the partial or complete restoration of natural areas that haev been degraded by human activities.
who are biological scientists studying relationships between living organisms and their environment.
Which releases more energy, nuclear fission or fusion?
Who were the inhabitants of the Easter Island?
Rapa Nui
When did John Muir find the Sierra Club?
In 1892