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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
George III
Issued the Proclamation of 1763 to avoid getting into trouble with the Indians because the colonists were moving into American Indian land.
George Grenville
Prime Minister who had asked Parliament to tax the colonists (due to heavy debts Britain has for going into war with France) and ended up with the Sugar Act and soon proposed the Stamp Act
James Otis
A lawyer from Boston that was the first to protest against the taxation by Parliament. Thought the tax was unfair and violated colonists’ rights and helped spread the slogan “No Taxation without Representation”
Samuel Adams
Agreed with James Otis and helped spread the slogan “No Taxation Without Representation” and helped find the Commitees of Correspondence and helped organize the Sons of Liberty
Sugar Act
Set duties/taxes on molasses and sugar imported by the colonists in 1764
Stamp Act
Proposed by Grenville, this was passed in March 1765 and required the colonists to pay for an official stamp/seal whenever they bought paper items. Had to be paid on legal documents, licenses, newspapers, pamphlets, and even playing cards
Committees of Correspondence
Helped founded by Samuel Adams; are groups that contacted other towns and colonies that shared ideas and info about the new British laws and ways to challenge them.
Sons of Liberty
Helped founded by Samuel Adams; Secret societies that was formed to challenge and rise up against the British and defy some of the rules the Parliament had created for them
Writs of Assistance
special search warrents that allowed tax collectors to search for smuggled goods
Boston Massacre
Started on March 5, 1770 when a British soldier got into a fight with a colonist. A crowd had gathered around the soldier shouting insults and throwing snowballs. Soon, a small group of tropps came and suddenly they fired killing several colonists
Boston Tea Party
When the Tea Act was passed in 1773, the colonists united against the Tea Act and decided to do something about it. So on November 1773, a ship carrying British tea arrived in the Boston harbor and the Sons of Liberty demanded that the ship and the two others that had arrived along with it leave. However, the ships refused to leave without getting paid. On December 16, colonists disguised themselves as American Indians and snuck onto the three tea filled ships. They dumped 342 tea chests into the Boston Harbor. As a result, the Parliament decided to punish Massachusetts and passed the Coercive Acts (a.k.a. Intolerable Acts)
Intolerable Acts
Happened as a result of the Boston Tea Part, the Parliament decided to punish Massachusetts (under the command of Lord North, the British prime minister) in the spring of 1774.
This act had several effects:
• Boston Harbor was closed until all the tea is paid for
• The charter was cancel; the governor would decide if and when the legislature could meet
• Royal officials accused of crimes were sent to Britain for trial
• Quartering Act forced colonists to house and supply British soldiers
• General Thomas Gage became the new governor of Massachusetts
Thomas Gage
A British general who decided to take away the minutemen’s weapons and ammunition in April 1775
Paul Revere
Heard about Thomas Gage trying to take away the weapons through the Sons of Liberty and raced on their horses through the countryside warning the minutemen that the British were coming
William Dawes
Heard about Thomas Gage trying to take away the weapons through the Sons of Liberty and raced on their horses through the countryside warning the minutemen that the British were coming.
Olive Branch Petition
A last attempt to keep the peace between the colonists and Great Britain. The delegates signed this on July 5 and named after an olive branch because it was a symbol of peace. However, in November, King George ||| rejected this peace offer
Battle of Bunker Hill
Once the colonists hear that the British wanted to take over Charleston, the colonists quickly rushed to build defenses near Bunker Hill and Breed’s Hill. Were very well protected, but low on gun powder. Most took place in Breed’s Hill and the British suffered more than 1000 casualties compared to the 400 casualties the colonists suffered. Proved that the colonists could hold their own against the British
Thomas Paine
Wrote “Common Sense” and “The Crisis” about the situation with British and the colonies. In “Common Sense” Paine argued for breaking away from Great Britian and was extremely popular due to the fact that Paine wrote it as a common person speaking to common people which allowed to him reach more people. In “The Crisis” Paine wrote about the morals of the colonists and wrote about the difficult times and boosted the colonists’ spirits immensely.
Thomas Jefferson
Part of the Second Continental Congress and wrote most of the Declaration of Independence and argued that all men possesses unalienable rights (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)
Declaration of Independence
Written (mostly by Thomas Jefferson), Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman, this expressed three main ideas. The first one is that all men possessed unalienable rights (Inspired by John Locke). Second point talked about how King Geore ||| had violated the colonist’s rights and how he charged the king with passing unfair laws, unfair taxing, and interfering with colonial self-government. Third, the colonies had a right to break away from Great Britain because the Enlightenment idea of the social contract states that the rulers should protect the rights of their citizens however, King Geore ||| broke the social contract therefore the colonists do not have to obey him. Approved on July 4, 1776. The United States of America had been born
A person who supposed and chose to fight for independence
A person who remained loyal to Great Britain (a.k.a. Tories)
Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation
Issued by Virginia’s governor Lord Dunmore which promised freedom to any slave that fights on the British side; issued on November 7, 1775
William Howe
British general who believed that the British would win the war quickly. Drove the Continental Arm off of Long Island in early July 1776 and forced the Continental Army to keep retreating
Battle of Trenton
On December 25, Washington decided to attack the Hessians at Trenton, New Jersey while they were celebrating the holiday and crossed the icy Delaware River. Many soldiers had no shoes and had no supplies but were still ready to fight. On December 26, Patriots marched up to Trenton and lasted for less than an hour. More than 900 Hessians were hurt/killed and only five for the American. Boosted the Patriot’s spirits
John Burgoyne
British general who was chosen to take back Fort Ticonderoga and did by early July. As he neared Albany, he was badly outnumbered by the Patriot troops and suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Brandywine Creek
Howe decides to attack Philadelphia and Washington rushes to stop him however on September 11, 1977 Howe’s forces won and the Patriots suffered almost twice as many casualties as the British
Marquis de Lafayette
A wealthy young man who arrived in America from France in the summer of 1777 and spoke little English and lacked combat experience. However, he believed in the Patriots to which it even impressed Washington.
John Paul Jones
Original name is John Paul but changed it to John Paul Jones once he left Scotland and arrived in America because he had accidentally killed someone. Successful captain that joined the navy and captured many British ships. One of his major victories come from the one against Serapis on September 23, 1779. Earlier in the battle, the British capton called out to Jones, “Has your ship surrendered?” and Jones bravely replied, “I have not yet begun to fight!” And two hours later, Jones had won.
Charles of Townshend
Chancellor of the Exchequer and writes checks for the government. Passed serious of taxes on several items. The money went to a military cause and to pay for the colonial government.
Quartering Acts
Forced the colonists to quarter, house and supply, British soldiers if needed
Samuel Prescott
Went with Dawes and Revere to warn the minutemen of the British’s plans to take their weapons away from them in Lexington. However, they were stopped by British soldiers. Managed to get away and was the actual person who made it Lexington (somehow Revere got all the credit)
George Washington
A Virginian that the Second Continental Meeting chose to lead the Continental Army to victory against the British. Had experience from the French and Indian War and was pretty rich.
Benedict Arnold
Was a great leader and helped the Patriots in many ways (and took Fort Ticonderoga). However, he became a traitor and sided with the British in the end because he felt as if he didn’t get enough credit and that he would be treated better if he was with the British.
Battle of Saratoga
Burgoyne had plans to meet up with Howe near Albany to team up against the Patriots, but Howe was delayed and never showed up leaving Burgoyne outnumbered by the Patriots led by General Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold and suffered a major defeat. Was also the battle that convinced the French and the Spanish to join the war on the colonists’ side
Battle of Yorktown
A plan Washington and Comte de Rochambeau came up with. Washington and Rochambeau would move their troops south and surround Cornwallis with a Patriot army with 16,000 soldiers (more than twice). Held Yorktown under a siege and steadily wore the British defenses down. British navy tried to save them, but the French fleet drove them away. This was the last battle and this finally convinced the British to end the war and let the colonists win.
Battle of Lexington/Concord
First battle of the American Revolution War. Happened on the morning of April 19 and was helped by Prescott who had warned them. “Don’t fire unless fired upon!” Then someone shot and no one knows who fired this “shot heard round the war” but the fight began and ended in minutes.