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92 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
T/F Cells in the human body are members of a cellular society.
T/F The goal of the cellular society is the survival of the individual cell.
False - The goal of the cellular society is the survival of the entire organism, not the individual cell.
What is comprised of the cellular mechanisms and genes that control the birth and death of cells
Cellular social control
T/F The rate of cell birth and cell death is kept in balance in order to maintain organ & tissue mass.
One mechanism that can trigger cells to divide is what?
Damage to tissue
T/F When damage occurs and repair is needed, non-dividing cells are triggered to divide and undergo differentiation (specialization).
T/F When the repair is complete, the proliferating cells must be “turned on"
False - When the repair is complete, the proliferating cells must be “turned off."
What kind of factors create a complex system of biologic signals that “turn on” and “turn off” cell growth?
Growth factors
What is a disease of cell growth and division (proliferation), as well as cell differentiation?
What is caused by mutation of the genes that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation?
What are the three main genetic mechanisms have a role in the development of tumors?
1. Mutation resulting in hyperactivity of genes that stimulate growth; These mutated genes are called oncogenes
2. Mutation resulting in loss of activity of genes that inhibit growth
3. Over-expression of genes that prevent apoptosis (normal cell death), allowing continued growth of tumors
How do oncogenes or inactivated tumor suppressor genes cause a tumor cell to proliferate indefinitely?
Telomerase- maybe…
• One explanation, which is just a part of the answer, involves the enzyme telomerase, which acts on the telomeres
– A telomere is the DNA’s protein “cap”, which is present at the end of each chromosome
– The telomere shrinks each time the cell divides
– When the telomere loses some of its length, the cell dies
• In immortal cancer cells, the enzyme telomerase adds nucleotides back to the telomere
• With a full-length telomere, cells continue to divide and do not die
What are indifferentiated cells in adults called?
Stem cells
Where are most stem cells found in adults?
Bone marrow
What kind of cell has the following characteristics?:
– Are not terminally differentiated
– Can divide without limits
– However, normally each division generates one daughter cell
and one differentiated daughter cell
Stems cells
T/F produce a growing tumor, a stem cell fails to produce one non-stem-cell
daughter in each division, thus proliferating and causing imbalance in
cell production versus cell destruction.
T/F Normal cells can not develop into cancer.
False - they can.
What is the process by which a normal cell becomes a cancer cell?
What is the following:
• During differentiation, certain genes (proto-oncogenes) are normally turned off
• Re-activation of these genes can transform a well-differentiated cell to be less differentiated
• Carcinogenic agents can mutate or re-activate these proto-oncogenes to cause cells to become less differentiated
• Cancer is considered to be a disorder of growth and differentiation because neoplasms resemble undifferentiated tissue
• The less the tumor resembles normal tissue, the more undifferentiated (anaplastic) it is
What are tumors classified according to?
The degree of differentiation, the tissue of origin, cell type, whether its benign or malignant, and its anatomic site
What kind of tumor classification is the following: Tumor grading grades differentiation
• It ranges from grade I to Grade IV
• It is the gauge for the degree of malignancy
Degree of differentiation
What grade cell is well differentiated and has resemblence of its tissue of origin?
grade I
What grade cell is moderately differentiated?
Grade II
What grade cell is poorly differentiated?
Grade III
What grade cell is very poorly differeniated and has no resemblance of its original tissue?
Grade IV
What kind of tumor classification is the following: – Some tumors retain some normal function so that the tissue of origin can be identified
– Others are so disorganized that the tissue of origin cannot be identified
Tissue origin
What type of tumor classification is the following: Tumors are named according to the tissues from which they arise with the suffix “oma”.
Cell type
What type of tumors have the following characteristics: – Well-differentiated, resemble cell of origin
– Remain localized, do not invade surrounding tissue
– Rate of growth is progressive and slow
– Cause pressure on normal tissue
– Name: adenoma, papilloma
Benign tumors
What type of tumors have the following characteristics: – Lack of differentiation
– Invade surrounding tissue, irregular borders
– Rate of growth is often rapid and erratic
– Destructive to normal tissue
– Name: Carcinoma, sarcoma
malignant tumors
What type of tumor classification is the following: – Carcinoma in situ: refers to pre-invasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell
origin that have not broken through the basement membranes of the epithelium
• Squamous cell origin: cervix, skin, oral cavity, esophagus, bronchus, etc.
• Glandular origin: stomach, endometrium, breast, prostate, large bowel, etc.
– The time that such lesions remain in situ before becoming invasive is unknown (some take several years)
Anatomic site
What kind of cells are disordered cells that proliferate rapidly and vary greatly in size and shape
cancer cells
What kind of cell divide in an uncoordinated manner, invading and destroying neighboring tissue?
cancer cells
What kind of cells are characterized by the following:
1. Local increase in cell number
• Increase in cell division (mitotic activity)
• Increase in total DNA
• Abnormal chromosomes
2. Variation of cell shape and size
3. Loss of normal arrangement of cells
cancer cells
What kind of cell junction change is the following: – Channels connecting adjacent cells that allow small molecules to pass between them, allowing communication and cooperation between cells
– Many carcinogens block gap junctions causing a decrease in intercellular communication, which may play a role in cancer development
Gap junction changes
What kind of cell junction change is the following: – An enzyme that degrades proteins
– It is not activated in normal cells
– It is activated in cancer cells, causing the degradation of the extracellular matrix during tumor cell invasion
Plasmin junction changes
What kind of cell junction change is the following: – The extracellular matrix is a meshwork of large organic molecules that bind cells together to make a tissue
– Normal cells are anchored to neighboring cells and to the extracellular matrix by anchoring junctions
– Normal cells do not divide unless they are anchored
– Cancer cells display anchorage-independence
-- Without being anchored they can:
• Continue to divide
• Metastasize and grow in new environments
Anchoring junction changes
Why do cancer cells have more metabolic demands?
Cancer cells exhibit greater metabolic demands due to increased rates of cellular divisions.
T/F Cancer cells engage in anaerobic glycolysis (allowing the most rapid use of glucose) even when oxygen is present.
Why is it not a good idea to diagnose cancer because of high metabolic rates?
– Many normal tissues exhibit high glycolytic rate and
– Many neoplasms have normal glycolytic rate
What is the cytoskeleton composed of?
The cytoskeleton is composed of a network of protein filaments (microfilaments and microtubules)
What does the cytoskeleton function to do?
The cytoskeleton functions to control the cell’s shape and internal organization.
T/F In cancer cells the filaments are not well organized resulting a rounded appearance.
What chemical is the following: – A glycoprotein
– Preset on cell surfaces in normal cells
– Serves as an anchoring molecule to:
• Hold cells in place in the tissue
• Hold receptor molecules in certain arrangement
• Help to keep the cell’s internal organization
• In cancer cells, this chemical is defective or broken down, causing changes in:
– Cellular organization
– Cell-to-cell adhesion
– Cellular migration
T/F Normal cells show a density-dependent growth inhibition; they usually form a monolayer in a culture dish.
How do cancer cells grow?
Cancer cells, continue to grow and pile up on top of another forming a multilayer.
What do growth factors in normal cells do?
Growth factors in normal cells
– Help regulate cell population density
– Include inducers and inhibitors (suppressors)
What is the result when growth factors are unbalanced?
Cancer may result when growth factors are unbalanced.
What are chronically stimulated by growth inducers?
Cancer Cells are chronically stimulated by growth inducers.
What kind of cells do not respond to growth supressors?
Cancer cells.
T/F Normal cells depend on other cells for growth inducers.
T/F Cancer cells either need no growth inducers to divide, or produce their own (autocrine) growth factors.
What happens to the nucleus in cancer cells?
The nuclei of cancer cells are often enlarged and variable in shape (instead of being round as in normal cells).
What chromosome abnormalities commonly occur in cancer cells?
Chromosome abnormalities such as deletions, breaks, inversions & translocations are frequent in cancer cells.
What are substances that are either produced by cancer cells or as the body’s response to cancer cells?
Tumor cell markers
What are a few examples of tumor cells markers?
They include hormones, enzymes, genes, antigens, antibodies.
What may increased hormone levels indicate?
• Increased hormone levels, such as insulin, in the blood may indicate:
1. Adenoma (adeno-carcinoma) of a certain endocrine gland (islet cells tumor)
2. Ectopic hormonal production: a certain type of lung cancer cells produce insulin
Where can tumor cell markers be found?
Tumor cell markers can be found:
– On plasma membranes of tumor cells
– In various body fluids such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), & urine
What are tumor cell markers used for?
Tumor cell markers are used to:
– Screen and identify individuals at high risk for cancer
– Help diagnose the specific type of tumor
– Follow the clinical course of cancer
Cancer risk depends on the interaction of what two factors?
Cancer risk depends on interaction between inherited and environmental factors.
Why is cancer genetic at the cellular level?
At the level of the cell, cancer is genetic because the primary basis of cancer is mutations, and mutations are genetic events.
Cancer commonly occurs in the (somatic/reproductive) cells.
most of the genetic changes that cause cancer occur in somatic cells, not in the reproductive cells. Thus, these genetic changes (events) are not transmitted to future generations. They are genetic events, but they are not inherited!
What kind of cells must cancer occur in to be passed on?
Only when the genetic changes occur in reproductive cells, they pass from generation to generation.
Environmental agents that cause cancer are called what?
How do carcinogens cause cancer?
Carcinogens cause cancer by increasing the frequency of mutations in somatic cells.
What is evidence that carcinogens cause cancer?
– Epidemiological and laboratory studies:
• Cigarette smoke causes lung cancer
• Certain chemicals cause certain types of cancer
– Comparison of populations with different life-styles:
• Breast cancer is prevalent in American and Northern European women, but is more rare in developing countries
• In Japan, colon cancer is rare; Japanese who immigrated to the US have increased colon cancer incidence
What are viruses called that cause cancer?
oncogenic viruses
What are the two ways in which viruses cause cancer?
Directly and Indirectly.
What kind of way does the following cause cancer:
– Viruses cause tissue damage, which results in healing
– Healing results in actively dividing cells
– Actively dividing cells are at higher risk of mutation
What kind of way does the following cause cancer: – Viruses invade the host’s cell
– They insert their genetic material into the cell’s DNA
– Thus causing the cell to transform into a cancer cell
There are 2 types of viruses that can cause cancer directly. What are they?
Oncogenic retroviruses and Oncogenic DNA viruses
What kind of virus is HTLV: human T cell leukemia-lymphoma virus?
Oncogenic retroviruses
What kind of virus is hepatitis B virus and Epstein-Barr virus?
Oncogenic DNA Viruses
These kind of viruses include papova-viruses, adeno-viruses, and herpes-viruses.
Oncogenic DNA Viruses
Hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human papilloma-virus are responsible for what percent of all human cancers worldwide
Hepatitis B virus is considered high risk factor for what kind of cancer?
hepatocellular carcinoma
Epstein-Barr virus can cause certain what kind of cancer in immunosuppressed individuals?
lymphomas and nasopharyngeal cancer
Human papilloma-virus has how many different sub-strains that cause either benign or malignant tumors
Cancer of the cervix and liver account for about what percent of virus-linked cancers.
What usually appears to be derived from a single “outlaw” stem cell (monoclonalorigin)?
Evidence indicates that tumor development requires what?
• Evidence indicates that tumor development requires several independent rare accidents to occur together in one cell.
Carcinogenesis is the multi-step process of tumor development, it includes what?
– The loss of the cell’s ability to terminally differentiate
– The loss of the cell’s ability to control growth
– The cell has to travel to distant tissue and invade and colonize it
T/F Very often there is a shirt delay between the initial causal event and the onset of cancer.
False - Very often there is a long delay between the initial causal event and the onset of cancer.
During what period, the cancer cells undergo multiple and successive changes?
During the latent (delay) period, the cancer cells undergo multiple and successive changes.
T/F Because they proliferate and divide faster, cancer cells will eventually outnumber normal cells.
What happens to the chances of getting cancer as age increases?
In most types of cancer, the chance of getting the disease increases at a rapid rate with age.
In theory, cancer development consists of what stages?
Initiation, Promotion, and Progression
What stage of cancer development consists of : - the developmental stage of cancer
– An irreversible mutation in the DNA of the cancer precursor cell after exposure to a carcinogen
Initiation Stage
What stage of cancer development consists of : cell proliferation and tumor development
– Promoters affect cell division by altering cellular communication and interfering with
differentiation (example: oils increase the presence of free radicals).
Promotion Stage
What stage of development of cancer is the following: a late stage of promotion, biological worsening
• In reality, only some cancers show this type of development
Progression Stage
What factors can affect the frequency of cancer?
However, the frequency and consequences of the genetic mutations can be altered by
environmental factors.
How is the study of carcinogens done?
The study of carcinogens (environmental agents that cause cancer) is done either:
1. In the lab (animals):
• In experimental animals, many agents cause cancer
2. Epidemiologically (study of populations):
• The relationship between life-style and cancer is not absolutely clear