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153 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
is our awareness of ourselves and our environment
consciousness
periodic physiological fluctuations, which includes annual cycles, twenty eight day cycles, twenty four hour cycles, ninety minute cycles
biological rythms
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms for example; temperature and wakefulness that occur on a 24 hour cycle
circadian rhythm
rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur, also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed but other systems are active
REM sleep
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
alpha waves
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness-as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
sleep
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus, sense of falling or floating
hallucinations
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
delta waves
recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
insomnia
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often in inopportune times
narcolepsy
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings
sleep apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an apperance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors cocur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
night terrors
"hallucinations of the sleeping mind" they are vivid, emotional, and bizarre.
dream
according to sigmund freud the remembered story lne of a dream
manifest content
according to freud a dreams manifest, or apparent, content is a censored, symbolic version of its ?, which consists of unconscious drives and wishes that would be threatening if expressed directly
latent content
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
REM rebound
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
hypnosis
a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
posthypnotic suggestion
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and begaviors to occur simultaneously with others
dissociation
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
psychoactive drug
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
tolerance
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
withdrawal
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasnat withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
physical dependence
a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
psychological dependence
complusive drug craving and use
addiction
drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
depressants
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
barbiturates
opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and herioin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
opiates
drugs(such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and exstasy that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
stimulants
drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body gunctions and associated energy and mood changes
amphetamines
a powerfully addicative drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels
methamphetamine
an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; often similar to drug induced hallucinations
near-death experience
the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
dualism
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
monism
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
developmental psychology
the fertilized egg; it enters a two week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
zygote
the developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month
embryo
the developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth
fetus
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryyo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
teratogens
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
a baby's tendancy, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
rooting reflex
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
habituation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
maturation
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
schema
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
assimilation
adapting one's current understandings to incorporate new information
accommodation
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
cognition
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about two years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
sensorimotor stage
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
object permanence
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
conservation
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational chld's difficulty taking another's pont of view
egocentrism
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behvior these might predict
theory of mind
a disorder that appears in child-hood and is marded by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others states of mind
autism
in Piaget's theory, the stage form about two to six or seven years of age during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mantal operatins of concret logic
preoperational stage
in Piaget's theory, thae stage of cognitive development during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
formal operational stage
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about eight months of age
stranger anxiety
an emotinal tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
attachment
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
critical period
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
imprinting
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
basic trust
a sense of one's identity and personal worth
self-concept
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
adolescence
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
puberty
the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
primary sex characterisitcs
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as fremale breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
secondary sex characteristics
the first menstrual period
menarche
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidigy a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
identity
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary develpmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
intimacy
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
menopause
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and , finally, physical functioning
alzheimer's disease
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
cross-sectional study
research in which the same prople are restudied and retested over a long period
longitudinal study
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
crystallized intelligence
one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
fluid intelligence
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
social clock
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences
associative learning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
classical conditioning
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1 but not with 2
behaviorism
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus(US) such as salivation when food is in the mouth
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditinally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus (CS)
conditioned response (CR)
in classsical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditoned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response
conditioned stimulus (CS)
the intial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associting a neurtral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the stregthening of a reinforced response
acquisition
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditined stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditiong when a response is no longer reinforced
extinction
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
spontaneous recovery
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditined stimulus to elicit similar responses
generalization
in classical conditioning the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
discrimination
a type of learning in which behavior is strenghtened if followed by a reinforcer of diminished if followed by a punisher
operant conditioning
behavior that occus as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behvior learned through classical conditioning
respondent behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
operant behavior
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consenquences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
law of effect
a chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an anumal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research
operant chamber
an operant conditiong procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired begavior
shaping
in operant conditioning, any event that strenghtens the behavior it follows
reinforcer
increasing begaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A psotive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
positive reinforcement
increasing begaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a reponse, streghtens the response
negative reinforcement
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that stisfies a biological need.
primary reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association witha primary reinforcer; also known as the secondary reinforcer
conditioned reinforcer
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisiton of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
partial(intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
continuous reinforcement
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of respoonses
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
variable-interval schedule
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
punishment
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive mop of it
cognitive map
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
latent learning
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a begavior due to promised rewards of threats of punishment
extrinsic motivation
learning by observing others
observational learning
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
modeling
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathey
mirror neurons
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. the opposite of antisocial behavior
prosocial behavior
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
flashbulb memory
the processing of information into the memory system-for example by extracting meaning
encoding
the retention of encoded information over time
storage
the process of getting information out of memory stage
retrieval
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
sensory memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
short-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
long-term memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming audityory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
working memory
unconscious ncoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well learned information, such as word meanings
automatic processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
effortful processing
the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to ecncode it for storage
rehearsal
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
spacing effect
out tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
serial position effect
the encoding of picture images
visual encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
acoustic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
semantic encoding
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
imagery
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
mnemonics
organizing items to familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
chunking
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photgraphic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few thenths of a second
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within three or four seconds
echoic memory
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
long-term potentiation (LTP)
the loss of memory
amnesia
retention independent of conscious recollection.Also called procedural memory
implicit memory
memory of facts and eperiences that one can consciously know and declare. Also called declarative memory
explicit memory
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
hippocampus
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
recall
the measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
recognition
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
relearning
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory. Ask a friend two rapid fire questions; if your friend answers stop to the second questio, you have demonstrated priming
priming
that eerie sense that i've experienced this before. bues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
deja vu
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
mood-congruent memory
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
retroactive interference
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
repression
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
misinformation effect
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. also call source misattrbution. sourc amnesia,along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories
source amnesia