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49 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS
Parties and interest groups that funtion as intermediaries between individuals and government
POLITICAL PARTIES
Organizations that seek to achieve power by winning public office
FEDERALISTS
Those who supported the U.S. Constitution during the ratification process and who later formed a political party in support of John Adams's presidential candidacy
ANTI-FEDERALISTS
Those who opposed the ratification of the U.S. Constitution and the creation of a strong national government
MAJORITY
Election by more than 50 percent of all votes cast in the contest
PLURALITY
Election by at least one vote more than any other candidate in the race
DEMOCRATIC PARTY
One of the main parties in American politics; it traces its origins to Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party, acquiring its current name under Andrew Jackson in 1828
REPUBLICAN PARTY
One of the two main parties in American politics, it traces its origins to the antislavery and nationalist forces that united in the 1850s and nominated Abraham Lincoln for president in 1860
GOP
"Grand Old Party"-popular label for the Republican Party
NEW DEAL
Politicies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the depression of the 1930s that helped form a Democratic Party coalition or urban working-class, ethnic, Catholic, Jewish, poor, and southern voters
FAIR DEAL
Politicies of President Harry Truman extending Roosevelt's New Deal and maintaining the Democratic Party's voter coalition
GREAT SOCIETY
Policies of President Lyndon Johnson that promised to solve the nation's social and economic problems through government intervention
REAGAN COALITION
Combination of economic and social conservatives, religious fundamentalists, and defense-minded anticommunists who rallied behind Republican President Ronald Reagan
DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP COUNCIL
Organization of party leaders who sought to create a "new" Democratic Party to appeal to middle-class, moderate voters
RESPONSIBLE PARTY MODEL
System in which competitive parties adopt a platform of principles, recruiting candidates and directing campaigns based on the platform, and holding their elected officials responsible for enacting it
PARTY POLARIZATION
The tendency of the Democratic Party to take more liberal positions and the Republican Party to take more conservative positions on key issues
NOMINEE
Political party's entry in a general election race
NOMINATION
Political party's selection of its candidate for a public office
PRIMARY ELECTIONS
Elections to choose party nominees for public office; may be open or closed
MACHINE
Tightly disciplined party organization, headed by a boss, that relies on material rewards-inluding patronage jobs-to control politics
PATRONAGE
Appointment to public office based on party loyalty
DIVIDED PARTY GOVERNMENT
One party controls the executive branch while the other party controls one or both houses of the legislative branch
SOFT MONEY
Campaign contributions, not subject to regulated limits, given to a party for activities such as party building or voter registration, but not directly for campaigns. Soft-money contribuitions to national parties were banned in 2002
NONPARTISAN ELECTIONS
Elections in which candidates do not officially indicate thier party affililiation; often used for city, country, school board, and judicial elections
CAUCUS
Nominating process in which party leaders select the party's nominee
WARD
Division of a city for electoral or administrative purposes or as a unit for organizing political parties
PRECINCT
Subdivision of a city, county, or ward for election purposes
CLOSED PRIMARIES
Primary elections in which voters must declare (or have previously declared) their party affiliation and can cast a ballot only in their own partys primary election
OPEN PRIMARIES
Primary elections in which a voter may cast a ballot in either party's primary election
RAIDING
Organized efforts by one pary to get its members to cross over in a primary and defeat an attractive candidate in the opposition party's primary
RUNOFf PRIMARY
Additional primary held between the top two vote-getters in a primary where no candidate has received a majority of the vote
GENERAL ELECTION
Election to choose among candidates nominated by parties and/or independent candidates who gained access to the ballot by petition
PARTY-IN-THE-ELECTORATE
Voters who identify themselves with a party
TICKET SPLITTER
Person who votes for candidates of different parties for different offices in a general election
PARTY-IN-THE-GOVERNMENT
Public officials who were nominated by thir party and who identify themselves in office with their party
PARTY ORGANIZATION
National and state party officials and workers, committee members, convention delegates, and others active in the party
CONVENTION
Nominating process in which delegates from local party organizations select the party's nominees
PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARIES
Primary elections in the states in which voters in each party can choose a presidential candidate for its party's nomination. Outcomes help determine the distribution of pledged delegates to each party's national nominating convention
DELEGATES
Accredited voting members of a party's national presidential nominating convention
SUPERDELEGATES
Delegates to the Democratic Party national convention selected because of their position in the government or the party and not pledged to any candidate
PLATFORM
Statement of principles adopted by a political party at its national convention (specific portions or the platform are known as planks); a platform is not binding on the party's candidates
PARTY IDENTIFICATION
Self-described identification with a political party, usually in response to the question, "Generally speaking, how would you identify yourself: as a Republican, Democrat, independent, or something else?"
DEALIGNMENT
Declining attractiveness of the parties to the voters, a reluctance to identify strongly with a party, and a decrease in a reliance on party affiliation in voter choice
REALIGNMENT
Long-term shift in social-group support for various political parties that creates new coalitons in each party
THIRD PARTY
Political party that challenges the two major parties in an election
IDEOLOGICAL PARTY
Third party that exists to promote an ideology rather than to win elections
SINGLE-ISSUE PARTY
Third party formed around one particular cause
SPLINTING PARTY
The party formed by a dissatisfied faction of a major party
PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION
Electoral system that allocates seats in a legislature based on the proportion of votes each party receives in a national election