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81 Cards in this Set

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stores
utilizes
the way that your body ______ and ________ energy is influenced not only by eating patterns but also by such factors as growth, stress, and metabolic rate.
energy metabolism
The way that your body stores and utilizes energy.
Energy metabolism
Body must balance intake of nutrients with their use.

Excess intake will lead to the conversion of nutrients to stored fats.

Inadequate intake will lead to the conversion of stored fats to free fats in the bloodstream.
Absorptive metabolism
Occurs for about 3-4 hours after food consumption

Energy input is exceeding output

Energy is being stored as macromolecules.
Postabsortive metabolism
occurs about 4-5 hours after food consumption and continues until food is eaten.

Energy reserves - 75-80% fat, 20-25% protein, 1% carbohydrate

Fats are the best energy storage molecule because they can contain over double the caloric value of protein or carbohydrates

9 cal/grams of fat vs. 4-6 cal/grams of carbs or proteins.

Energy use exceeds input

Macromolecules are broken down to provide energy molecules
Macromolecules
____________ are broken down to provide energy molecules
Fats
____ are the best energy storage molecule because they can contain over double the caloric value of protein or carbohydrates
Energy reserves
75-80% fat, 20-25% protein, 1% carbohydrate
Absorptive metabolism
Occurs for about 3-4 hours after food consumption
Absorptive metabolism
Energy input is exceeding output
Postabsortive metabolism
Energy use exceeds input
Postabsortive metabolism
occurs about 4-5 hours after food consumption and continues until food is eaten.
Regulation of metabolism
Insulin & Glucagon regulation
anabolism
metabolism that is the same small biomolecules that provide energy are also used to synthesize larger biomolecules.
control of energy metabolism
1. Food intake is intermittent, so body must store nutrients during periods of intake and then break down these stores during periods btwn meals.

2. Because the brain depends on glucose as its primary energy source, blood glucose levels must be maintained at all times, even btwn meals.
metabolic pathways
Most important in determining which _________ _________ are in operation is the # and activity of enzymes involved in the pathway.
activity
The _______ of enzymes can be regulated by changing their conc. through synthesis or degradation, or by changing the _______ of individual enzymes molecules through allosteric or covalent regulation.
brain
skeletal muscle
liver
adipose tissue
Tissues or organs that have special metabolic activities include the _____, ______ _______, _____, and ________ ______.
molecular fates
be broken down

be used to synthesize

used for energy storage (glycogen & triglyceride (fat))
glucose
Carbs are transported in the blood as ______.
a.a.
Proteins are transported in the blood as ___.
lipoproteins
Lipids are transported as ___________.
Energy in Carbs
1. in cells, glucose can be oxidized for energy

2. generates CO2 as a waste product; provide substrates for other metabolic reactions

3. can be converted to glycogen for storage

4. If glucose levels in the cell decrease, glycogen can be broken down to glucose by glycogenolysis.
Energy in Proteins
1. A.A.'s are used for the synthesis of _______.

2. catabolized for energy by proteolysis

3. _________ function as A.A. stores that can breakdown to A.A.

4. can then be catabolized for energy or released into the bloodstream for use by other cells.
Catabolism
__________ of cellular proteins to generate energy occurs only during periods of starbation, and it generates ammonia (NH3) and CO2 as waste products.
energy of fats
1. lipoprotein lipase is an enzyme that breaks down lipoproteins. (inside capillaries throughout the body esp. in adipose tissue)
fatty acids are taken up by nearby cells.

2. monoglycerides remain in bloodstream until metabolized in liver.

3. fatty acids may be oxidized for energy or can be combined w/glycerol to for triglycerides.

4. stored in fat droplets in the cytosol. mainly in adipocytes. triglyceride can be broken down into fatty acid & glycerol

5. can catabolize for energy or released into the bloodstream for use by other cells

6. produces CO2 as waste product.
catabolism
The breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler components, accompanied by the release of energy.
lipoproteins
A compound containing a relatively small lipid bound to a protein.
anabolism
metabolism that is the same small biomolecules that provide energy are also used to synthesize larger biomolecules.
control of energy metabolism
1. Food intake is intermittent, so body must store nutrients during periods of intake and then break down these stores during periods btwn meals.

2. Because the brain depends on glucose as its primary energy source, blood glucose levels must be maintained at all times, even btwn meals.
metabolic pathways
Most important in determining which _________ _________ are in operation is the # and activity of enzymes involved in the pathway.
activity
The _______ of enzymes can be regulated by changing their conc. through synthesis or degradation, or by changing the _______ of individual enzymes molecules through allosteric or covalent regulation.
brain
skeletal muscle
liver
adipose tissue
Tissues or organs that have special metabolic activities include the _____, ______ _______, _____, and ________ ______.
molecular fates
be broken down

be used to synthesize

used for energy storage (glycogen & triglyceride (fat))
glucose
Carbs are transported in the blood as ______.
a.a.
Proteins are transported in the blood as ___.
lipoproteins
Lipids are transported as ___________.
Energy in Carbs
1. in cells, glucose can be oxidized for energy

2. generates CO2 as a waste product; provide substrates for other metabolic reactions

3. can be converted to glycogen for storage

4. If glucose levels in the cell decrease, glycogen can be broken down to glucose by glycogenolysis.
Energy in Proteins
1. A.A.'s are used for the synthesis of _______.

2. catabolized for energy by proteolysis

3. _________ function as A.A. stores that can breakdown to A.A.

4. can then be catabolized for energy or released into the bloodstream for use by other cells.
Catabolism
__________ of cellular proteins to generate energy occurs only during periods of starbation, and it generates ammonia (NH3) and CO2 as waste products.
energy of fats
1. lipoprotein lipase is an enzyme that breaks down lipoproteins. (inside capillaries throughout the body esp. in adipose tissue)
fatty acids are taken up by nearby cells.

2. monoglycerides remain in bloodstream until metabolized in liver.

3. fatty acids may be oxidized for energy or can be combined w/glycerol to for triglycerides.

4. stored in fat droplets in the cytosol. mainly in adipocytes. triglyceride can be broken down into fatty acid & glycerol

5. can catabolize for energy or released into the bloodstream for use by other cells

6. produces CO2 as waste product.
catabolism
The breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler components, accompanied by the release of energy.
lipoproteins
A compound containing a relatively small lipid bound to a protein.
lipolysis
The catabolism of lipids as a source of energy.
adipocytes
A fat cell.
Energy input
absorbed nutrients into the body
Energy output
all the energy contained in a molecule is conveted to heat during oxidation, and thus the enerfy content of the molecule (input) is equal to tthe quantity of energy in the heat (output).

heat and work - energy released during oxidation
Mechanical work
uses intracellular protein filaments to generate movement, such as occurs in muscle contraction or the beating of cilia lining the respiratory tract.
Chemical work
used in the formation of bonds during chemical reactions, such as the occurs when small moelcules are used to synthesize large molecules.
transport work
utilizes energy to move a molecule from one side of a cell membrane to the another or in vesicle transport.
metabolic rate
The body's rate of energy expenditure; the total heat produced by the chemical reactions and mechanical work of the body.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Rate at which energy is expended (heat produced) by the body per unit time under controlled (basal) conditions: 12 hours after a meal, at rest.
Positive energy balance
associated with increases in body weight

a net synthesis of macromolecules from absorbed nutrients occurs.
Negative energy balance
associated with decreases in body weight

a net breakdown of macromolecules provides energy for body functions.
absorptive state
period following a meal during which nutrients are absorbed.
postabsorptive state
period btwn meals during which stored nutrients are mobilized.
absorptive
postabsorptive
During the _________ state, energy is stored in macromolecules; during the ____________ state, these energy stores are mobilized.
Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
one of a group of lipoprotein particles types consisting lipids and proteins in various ratios

contain a high ratio of lipids to proteins, thus their low density.
insulin
a peptide hormone secreted by b-cells in pancreas

promotes synthesis of energy storage molecules and other processes characteristics of the absorptive state.
glucagon
a peptide hormone secreted by a-cells in pancreas

decreases the absorptive state and increases during the postabsorptive state.
osteoid
an organic component that consists of collagen fibers embedded in a gel-like substance, gives bone its ability to withstand tensile or stratching forces, making it less prone to fracture.
deposition
building up of mass of bone tissue
osteoclasts
bone breakers

breaking bone tissue
resorption
breaking down bone tissue
calcification
Osteoblasts initiate bone deposition by laying down the osteoid, which followed by deposition of calcium phosphate, a process called _____________.
osteocyte
bone cell

Cells trapped within bone that maintain the bone,
cannaliculi
permit the diffusion of nutrients and wastes to and from osteocytes.
epiphyseal plate
a thin layer of tissue that sepearates the epiphyses of a long bone from the shaft

plays a key role in the elongation of bones during growth.
cartilage
a soft material similar to uncalcified osteoid.
red bone marrow
red and white blood cell
yellow bone marrow
contains primarily adipocytes
chondrocytes
similar to osteoblasts except that they produce cartilage rather than bone
epiphyseal plate closure
the epiphyseal plate become completely filled in with bone tissue.
Regulation of metabolism
Insulin and glucagon regulation

SNS & epinephrine control plasma glucose
Growth hormone
Peptide hormone from the ant. pit.
↑ protein synthesis
↑ cell size
stimulates cell division
↑ plasma glucose, fatty acids
↑ lipolysis
Thyroid hormone
produced by thyroid gland
major regulator of metabolic rate
↑ Na+/K+ pump activity
works with other hormones to maximize their effects (permissive)
glucocorticoids
steroids from adrenal cortex
act to maintain enzyme - levels in cells necessary during postabsorptive conditions, especially long term
Act permissively w/many other hormones
Suppress immune functions
Stress response
Alarm
Resistance
Exhaustion
Alarm
↑ epinephrine
↑ SNS output

If stress goes away, these will stabilize and go back down
Resistance
If stressor persists,
↑ ACTH
↑ Glucocorticoids (cortisol) → ↑ available energy sources
→ overtime can ↓ immune functions
Exhaustion
stress still present

→ ↑ glucocorticoid

→ ↑ aldersterone → ↑ Na+ concentration & ↓ potassium concentration → electrolyte imbalances