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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the axial skeleton contains:
1. Skull
2. Auditory Ossicles
3. Hyoid bone
4. Vertebral column
5. Rib Cage
Rib Cage
24 ribs (12 pairs)
1 sternum

costal cartilages connect ribs to sternum
Vertebral Column
7 cervical vertebra
12 thoracic vertebra
5 lumbar vertebra
1 sacrum (4 or 5 fused bones)
1 Coccyx (3-5 fused bones) (tail bones)
Auditory ossicles
2 malleus
2 incus
2 stapes
present in middle ear chamber, serve to transmit sound impulses
Skull-facial parts
2 maxilla
2 palatine
2 zygomatic
2 lacrimal
2 nasal
1 vomer
2 inferior nasal concha
1 mandible
skull-cranial
1 frontal
2 parietal
1 occipital
2 temporal
1 sphenoid
1 ethmoid
appendicular skeleton contains
1. pectoral girdle
2. upper extremites
3. pelvic girdle
4. lower extremities

bones of upper and lower extremities and the bony girdles that anchor the appendages to the axial skeleton
pectoral girdle
2 scapulae (shoulder blades)
2 clavicles (collar bones)
1 sternum

primarily for attachment for muscles that move brachium (arm) and antebrachium (forearm)
lower extremities
2 femur (thigh bone)
2 tibia (shin bone)
2 fibula (what mom broke)
2 patella (kneecap)
14 tarsal bones
10 metatarsal bones
28 phalanges (toes)
pelvic girdle
2 ossa coxae (hip bones, also written os coxae)
1 sacrum

supports weight of body through the vertebral column and protects the viscera within pelvic cavity
upper extremities
2 humerus
2 radius
2 ulna
16 carpal bones
10 metacarpal bones
28 phalanges (finger bones)
functions of a bone
1. support
2. protection
3. body movement
4. hemopiesis (blood cell formation)
5. fat storage
6. mineral storage
short bones
cube-shaped transfer forces of movement
long bones
longer than they are wide, function as a lever
flat bone
broad surface for muscle attachment or protection of underlying organs
sulcus*
a grove that accomadates a vessel, nerve, or tendon*
sinus*
a cavity or hollow space in a bone*
fossa*
a flattened or shallow surface*
foramen*
a rounded opening through a bone*
fissure*
a narrow, slitlike opening*
alveolus*
a deep pit or socket*
head*
prominent, rounded articulating end of a bone*
facet*
a flattened or shallow articulating surface*
crest*
a narrow, ridglike projection*
condyle*
large, rounded, articulating knob*
epicondyle*
a projection adjacent to a condyle*
process*
any marked bony prominence*
ramus*
a flattened angular part of a bone*
spine*
a sharp, slender process*
trochanter*
a massive process found only on the femure*
tubercle*
a small rounded process*
tuberosity*
a large, roughened process*
diploe
in a flat bone of the skull, the spongy bone is sandwiched between the compact bone and is called...
compact (dense) bone
hard and dense bone tissue and is the protective exterior portion of bones
spongy bone
deep inside the compact bone and is porous
Diaphyis
long bone shaft
medullary cavity
a central cavity inside the diaphysis, contains yellow bone marrow
endosteum
thin layer of connective tissue lining the medullary cavity
epiphysis
each end of the diaphysis, consisting of spongy bone and compact bone, red bone marrow found in pores of spongy
red bone marrow
found in spongy pores, hemopoiesis occurs here, esp in sternum, vertebrae etc
articular cartilage
made of hyaline cartilage, camps epiphysis and facilitates joint movement
nutrient foramina
small openings into bone that allow nutrient vessels to pss for nurishment, along diaphysis
epiphyseal plate
reagion of mitotic activity aka bone growth (growth plate) located between epiphysis and diaphysis
epiphyseal line
replaces the the plate and final ossification occurs between diaphysis and epiphysis
periosteum of dense regular tissue
covers surface of bone (except articular cartilidge) used as a place for tendon-muscle attachment and is responsible for appositional bone growth-(incease in width)
perforating fibers
bundle of collagenous fiber, secures periosteum to bone
osteogenic cells
respond to trama (fracture)
Osteoblasts
bone forming cells
osteocytes
mature bone cells
osteoclasts
break down bone cells
bone-lining cells
derived fom osteoblasts along the surface
trabeculae
minute spikes of bone tissue, give spongy bone lattice like appearance
osteons, or haversian systems
cylindrical structures parallel to the long axis of bone
lamellae
concentric circles of the matrix of osteons, surround a central canal
central canal
center of lamellae, contains small nutrient vessels and a nerve
lacuna
osteocytes within spaces regularly arranged between lamelae.

(lake)
canaliculi
channels connecting lacunae
interstitial systems
area between osteons (made up of remnants of osteons)
perforating (volkmann's canals)
connect osteons with blood vessels and nerves
nasal fossae
two chambers of the nasal cavity
nasal septum
bone and cartilidge which separate the nasal fossae
fontanels
membrandous sheets of connective tissue tha tcover the gaps between the developing bones
1 anterior
1 posterior
2 anterolateral
2 posterolateral
sutures
extend the lengths of fontanel to fontanel

sagittal
coronal
lambdoid
squamous
frontal bone
forehead, roof of nasal cavity and superior arches of orbits (eyeballs)
parietal bone
2 form upper sides and roof of cranium
temporal bone
lower sides of the cranuim, adjoined to parietal bone by squamous suture
has four parts

squamous-zygomatic process, zygomatic arch, and mandibular fossa(jaw joint)
Tympanic-external acoustic meatus(ear canal) styloid process
mastoid
petrous
occipital bone
posterior and most of base of scull
foramen magnum
large hole in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes to attach to the brain stem
occipital condyles
articulate with the first vertbra (atlas)
sphenoid bone
forms part of the anterior base of the cranium and inferiorly, looks like a moth
body, greater wings, lesser wings, sphenoidal sinuses
parts of the sphenoid bone
sella turcica
houses pituitary gland in sphenoid bone
optic canal
large opening in lesser wing (sphenoid bone) for optic nerve and opthalmic artery
superior orbital fissure
triangular opening between the wings of sphenoid bone for lots of nerves
foramen ovale
opening at the base of the alteral pterygoid plate, through which the mandibular nerve passes (sphenoid bone)
foramen spinosum
small opening at the base fo the lateral pyerygoid plate, through which the mandibular nerve passes (sphenoid bone)
foramen lacerum
opening between the sphenoid and petrous part of the temporal bone, arteries pass
foramen rotundum
opening just posterior to the superior orbital fissure, maxillary nerve passes here (sphenoid bone)(
ethmod bone
forms the roof tof the nasal cavity
perpendicular plate
plate in the middle, separates into two nasal channels
nasal fossa
each nasal channel
ethmoid sinus
lots of holes on each side of the perpendicular plate form this
crista galli
spine of perpendicular plate
superior and middle nasal concha
on each side fo the perpendicuar plate, have ethmoidal air cells
cribriform plate
perpendicular to the perpendicular plate, within hte floor of the cranium, contains many bririform foramina for nerves
maxilla
upper jaw
palatine bone
l shaped bone for form the posterior third dof the hard palate, part of the orbits, and part of hte nasal cavity
zygomatic bone
cheekbones
lacrimal bone
medial wall of each orbit
nasal bone
form th ebridge of the nose
inferior nasal concha
scroll like bones that project horizontally and medially from the lateral walss of hte nasal cavity
vomer
thin flattened bone that forms the lower part of hte nasal septum
mandible
jawbone
hyoid bone
doesn't attach to any other bone, located in the neck, supports the tongue
auditory ossicles
three small paired bones, located within the middle ear cavities
outer to inner:
malleus, incus, stapes
vertebral column
backbone
cervical
thoracic
lumbar
sacral
coccygeal